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The use of public key encryption (DiHie ~nd Hellman II-I, Rivest, Shamir1andAdleman flt])-tO.provide , secure network eoInmunicationhas-receiv-cdcollSidecable atte-ntioTl {Dimcand Ilellnum'{2J, Merkle {7],Need-llamandSc:ltfoede·r 18}JPopek antlKJinc .ltOn.Such , public key systems are usually veryclfeetive against a "passive" ,(~avcsdropper, namely,"one(More)
The notion of non-malleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography , is deened. Informally, the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a diierent ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. The same concept makes sense in the contexts of string commitment and zero-knowledge(More)
This paper introduces a general formulation of<?Pub Fmt italic>atomic snapshot memory<?Pub Fmt /italic>, a sharedmemory partitioned into words written(<?Pub Fmt italic>updated<?Pub Fmt /italic>) by individual processes, orinstantaneously read (<?Pub Fmt italic>scanned<?Pub Fmt /italic>) in itsentirety. This paper presents three wait-free implementations of(More)
We study <i>k-resilient Nash equilibria</i>, joint strategies where no member of a coalition <i>C</i> of size up to <i>k</i> can do better, even if the whole coalition defects. We show that such <i>k</i>-resilient Nash equilibria exist for secret sharing and multiparty computation, provided that players prefer to get the information than not to get it. Our(More)
This paper describes Transis, a communication sub-system for high availability. Transis is a transport layer package that supports a variety of reliable multicast message passing services between processors. It provides highly tuned multicast and control services for scalable systems with arbitrary topology. The communication domain comprises of a set of(More)
This paper is concerned with the solvability of the problem of processor renaming in unreliable, completely asynchronous distributed systems. Fischer et al. prove in [8] that &#8220;nontrivial consensus&#8221; cannot be attained in such systems, even when only a single, benign processor failure is possible. In contrast, this paper shows that problems of(More)
Reaching agreement is a primitive of distributed computing. Whereas this poses no problem in an ideal, failure-free environment, it imposes certain constraints on the capabilities of an actual system: A system is viable only if it permits the existence of consensus protocols tolerant to some number of failures. Fischer et al. have shown that in a completely(More)