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Much recent discussion about the origin of Parkinsonian symptoms has centered around the idea that they arise with the increase of beta frequency waves in the EEG. This activity may be closely related to an oscillation between subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus. Since STN is the target of deep brain stimulation, it had been assumed that its(More)
In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling (ERSS) protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes(More)
Missense, nonsense and frame-shift mutations in the collagen X gene (COL10A1) result in metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS). Complete degradation of mutant COL10A1 mRNA by nonsense-mediated decay in human MCDS cartilage implicates haploinsufficiency in the pathogenesis for nonsense mutations in vivo. However, the mechanism is unclear in(More)
Collagen II is a fibril-forming collagen that is mainly expressed in cartilage. Collagen II-deficient mice produce structurally abnormal cartilage that lacks growth plates in long bones, and as a result these mice develop a skeleton without endochondral bone formation. Here, we report that Col2a1-null mice are unable to dismantle the notochord. This defect(More)
Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of(More)
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by aganglionosis of the distal intestine. To assess the contribution of copy number variants (CNVs) to HSCR, we analysed the data generated from our previous genome-wide association study on HSCR patients, whereby we identified NRG1 as a new HSCR susceptibility locus. Analysis of 129 Chinese(More)
Despite the high prevalence of intervertebral disc disease, little is known about changes in intervertebral disc cells and their regenerative potential with ageing and intervertebral disc degeneration. Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in the nucleus pulposus from mice(More)
Lambda-red system-based recombinogenic engineering is a powerful new method to engineer DNA without the need for restriction enzymes or ligases. Here, we report the use of a single selectable marker to enhance the usefulness of this approach. The strategy is to utilize the thymidylate synthase A (thyA) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the synthesis(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc. A SNP for guanine insertion/deletion (G/D), the -1607 promoter polymorphism, of the MMP1 gene was found significantly affecting promoter activity and corresponding transcription level. Hence it is a good candidate for genetic(More)
OBJECTIVE Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted(More)