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Much recent discussion about the origin of Parkinsonian symptoms has centered around the idea that they arise with the increase of beta frequency waves in the EEG. This activity may be closely related to an oscillation between subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus. Since STN is the target of deep brain stimulation, it had been assumed that its(More)
Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of(More)
STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional population study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. OBJECTIVE.: To examine the pattern and prevalence of lumbar spine MRI changes within a southern Chinese population and their relationship with back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previous studies on MRI changes and back pain have used populations of asymptomatic(More)
In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling (ERSS) protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes(More)
Collagen II is a fibril-forming collagen that is mainly expressed in cartilage. Collagen II-deficient mice produce structurally abnormal cartilage that lacks growth plates in long bones, and as a result these mice develop a skeleton without endochondral bone formation. Here, we report that Col2a1-null mice are unable to dismantle the notochord. This defect(More)
Although many studies have demonstrated that cell phenotype is affected by the surface properties of biomaterials, these materials often fail to mimic the complexity of the native tissue microenvironment (TME). In this study, we have developed a new experimental model that allows the characterisation and functional reconstruction of natural TME. We(More)
<b>Real-Time Line and Disk Light Shading</b> <b>Eric Heitz and Stephen Hill</b> At SIGGRAPH 2016, we presented a new real-time area lighting technique for polygonal sources. In this talk, we will show how the underlying framework, based on <i>Linearly Transformed Cosines</i> (LTCs), can be extended to support line and disk lights. We will discuss the(More)
STUDY DESIGN Low back pain (LBP) and sciatica are usually caused by degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although they are common, the etiology of these conditions is poorly understood. A large population case-control study in the Southern Chinese was performed to study genetic risk factors to DDD. OBJECTIVES To gain a better understanding of the etiology of(More)
Disturbances to the balance of protein synthesis, folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce stress and thereby the ER stress signaling (ERSS) response, which alleviates this stress. In this Commentary, we review the emerging idea that ER stress caused by abnormal physiological conditions and/or mutations in genes that encode client(More)
Despite the high prevalence of intervertebral disc disease, little is known about changes in intervertebral disc cells and their regenerative potential with ageing and intervertebral disc degeneration. Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in the nucleus pulposus from mice(More)