Danna R. Gifford

Learn More
The rarity of beneficial mutations has frustrated efforts to develop a quantitative theory of adaptation. Recent models of adaptive walks, the sequential substitution of beneficial mutations by selection, make two compelling predictions: adaptive walks should be short, and fitness increases should become exponentially smaller as successive mutations fix. We(More)
The vegetation of the well drained soils along the Suiá--Missu road in the Serra do Roncador region of NE Mato Grosso is Evergreen Seasonal forest of Amazonian type. The area lies close to the meeting place of the Amazonian forest (the hylaea) and the cerrado (savanna) formation of Central Brazil. The structure of the forest is simple: the canopy is at(More)
Adaptation involves the successive substitution of beneficial mutations by selection, a process known as an adaptive walk. Gradualist models of adaptation, which assume that all mutations are small relative to the distance to a fitness optimum, predict that adaptive walks should be longer when the founding genotype is less well adapted. More recent work(More)
Antibiotic resistance mutations are accompanied by a fitness cost, and two mechanisms allow bacteria to adapt to this cost once antibiotic use is halted. First, it is possible for resistance to revert; second, it is possible for bacteria to adapt to the cost of resistance by compensatory mutations. Unfortunately, reversion to antibiotic sensitivity is rare,(More)
Despite the widespread availability of guidelines for caring for patients with diabetes and decades of research on computerized reminder systems, large gaps in quality remain in diabetes care remain and computerized reminder systems are rarely used for patients with diabetes. We set out to develop and test the feasibility of a system that would overcome(More)
Host-parasite evolutionary interactions are typically considered in a pairwise species framework. However, natural infections frequently involve multiple parasites. Altering parasite diversity alters ecological and evolutionary dynamics as parasites compete and hosts resist multiple infection. We investigated the effects of parasite diversity on(More)
Determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. Despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques permit the development of models with(More)
There is growing evidence that parallel molecular evolution is common, but its causes remain poorly understood. Demographic parameters such as population bottlenecks are predicted to be major determinants of parallelism. Here, we test the hypothesis that bottleneck intensity shapes parallel evolution by elucidating the genomic basis of adaptation to(More)
The fitness effects of antibiotic resistance mutations in antibiotic-free conditions play a key role in determining the long-term maintenance of resistance. Although resistance is usually associated with a cost, the impact of environmental variation on the cost of resistance is poorly understood. Here, we test the impact of heterogeneity in temperature and(More)
Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous in nature and have high societal significance, being both major (food-borne) pathogens and important industrial organisms in the production of antibiotics and enzymes. In addition, fungi are important model organisms for fundamental research, such as studies in genetics and evolutionary biology. However, mechanistic models(More)