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During maximal breath-holding six healthy elite breath-hold divers, after an initial "easy-going" phase in which cardiovascular changes resembled the so-called "diving response", exhibited a sudden and severe rise in blood pressure during the "struggle" phase of the maneuver. These changes may represent the first tangible expression of a defense reaction,(More)
To evaluate the separate cardiovascular response to body immersion and increased environmental pressure during diving, 12 healthy male subjects (mean age 35.2 +/- 6.5 yr) underwent two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in five different conditions: out of water (basal); head-out immersion while breathing (condition A); fully immersed at the surface while(More)
Breath-hold diving induces, in marine mammals, a reduction of cardiac output due to a decrease of both heart rate and stroke volume. Cardiovascular changes in humans during breath-hold diving are only partially known due to the technical difficulty of studying fully immersed subjects. Recently, a submersible echocardiograph has been developed, allowing a(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyperoxia causes oxidative stress. Breath-hold diving is associated with transient hyperoxia followed by hypoxia and a build-up of carbon dioxide (CO₂), chest-wall compression and significant haemodynamic changes. This study analyses variations in plasma oxidative stress markers after a series of repetitive breath-hold dives. METHODS Thirteen(More)
INTRODUCTION Inert gas accumulated after multiple recreational dives can generate tissue supersaturation and bubble formation when ambient pressure decreases. We hypothesized that this could happen even if divers respected the currently recommended 24-hour pre-flight surface interval (PFSI). METHODS We performed transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) on a(More)
OBJECTIVE Scuba and breath-hold divers are compared to investigate whether endothelial response changes are similar despite different exposure(s) to hyperoxia. DESIGN 14 divers (nine scuba and five breath-holding) performed either one scuba dive (25m/25 minutes) or successive breath-hold dives at a depth of 20 meters, adding up to 25 minutes of immersion(More)
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a systemic disorder, assumed due to gas bubbles, but additional factors are likely to play a role. Circulating microparticles (MPs)--vesicular structures with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm--have been implicated, but data in human divers have been lacking. We hypothesized that the number of blood-borne, Annexin V-positive MPs and(More)
BACKGROUND Ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) detected by chest sonography are a simple, noninvasive, semiquantitative sign of increased extravascular lung water. Pulmonary edema may occur in elite apnea divers, possibly triggered by centralization of blood flow from the periphery to pulmonary vessels. We assessed the prevalence of ULCs in top-level breath-hold(More)
Breath-hold divers may experience haemoptysis during diving. Central pooling of blood as well as compression of pulmonary gas content can damage the integrity of the blood-gas barrier, resulting in alveolar hemorrhage. The single-breath carbon monoxide test (DL,CO) was used to investigate the blood-gas barrier following diving. The study population(More)
The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of(More)