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Understanding HIV-1 subtype distribution and epidemiology can assist preventive measures and clinical decisions. Sequence variation may affect antiviral drug resistance development, disease progression, evolutionary rates and transmission routes. We investigated the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in Europe and Israel in a representative sample of patients(More)
Data from 23 European countries show that the annual number of HIV diagnoses in men who have sex with men (MSM) increased by 86% between 2000 and 2006. This paper reports the main preliminary results of a bio-behavioural survey in MSM with a specific focus on HIV prevalence and use of United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) indicators in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence in a sample of homosexual and bisexual men in Bratislava. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were recruited at gay discotheque in Bratislava in February and June 1996. Saliva samples were collected for testing the presence of anti-HIV antibodies and a questionnaire regarding sexual practice was(More)
Outbred laboratory mice were inoculated at the age of 5, 10 and 21 days by oral and/or intranasal routes with 2 different (a lethal and a nonlethal) doses of the murine herpesvirus isolate 68 (MHV-68). Severe exudative pneumonia with haematogenous dissemination of the virus to liver, heart muscle, and kidneys developed in the 5-day-old as well as in a part(More)
The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence(More)
BACKGROUND One out of ten newly diagnosed patients in Europe was infected with a virus carrying a drug resistant mutation. We analysed the patterns over time for transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) using data from the European Spread program. METHODS Clinical, epidemiological and virological data from 4317 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1(More)
Newborn white mice were susceptible to peroral (p.o.) infection with murine alphaherpesvirus isolated from free-living Clethrionomys glareolus. Death occurred within 6-8 days in animals infected with the higher virus dose of 4.8 log10 TCID50. Clinical symptoms also occurred in some animals infected with lower doses, while others developed inapparent(More)
C3 and Bf polymorphisms were studied in 215 and 192 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM), respectively. No significant differences in C3 phenotypes and allele frequencies were found between IDDM patients and a healthy population. The rare allele BfF1 was found in 9.37% of diabetic patients but in only 0.35% of the general Slovak population (0.0468(More)
International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Data came from(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. METHODS This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European SPREAD HIV resistance surveillance programme. A representative(More)