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BACKGROUND There is a need to understand much more about the geographic variation of air pollutants. This requires the ability to extrapolate from monitoring stations to unsampled locations. The aim was to assess methods to develop accurate and high resolution maps of background air pollution across the EU. METHODS We compared the validity of ordinary(More)
Studies on the health effects of long-term average exposure to outdoor air pollution have played an important role in recent health impact assessments. Exposure assessment for epidemiological studies of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution remains a difficult challenge because of substantial small-scale spatial variation. Current approaches for(More)
Land Use Regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in air pollution concentrations and estimating individual exposure for participants of cohort studies. Within the ESCAPE project, concentrations of PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10), and PM(coarse) were measured in 20 European study areas at 20 sites(More)
Land-use regression modeling was used to develop maps of annual average black smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentrations in 1962, 1971, 1981, and 1991 for Great Britain on a 1 km grid for use in epidemiological studies. Models were developed in a GIS using data on land cover, the road network, and population, summarized within circular buffers(More)
Land Use Regression (LUR) models have been used to describe and model spatial variability of annual mean concentrations of traffic related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). No models have yet been published of elemental composition. As part of the ESCAPE project, we measured the elemental(More)
BACKGROUND Local strategies to reduce green-house gases (GHG) imply changes of non-climatic exposure patterns. OBJECTIVE To assess the health impacts of locally relevant transport-related climate change policies in Basel, Switzerland. METHODS We modelled change in mortality and morbidity for the year 2020 based on several locally relevant transport(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated new onset of asthma in adults in relation to air pollution. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between modeled background levels of traffic-related air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported asthma incidence in a European adult population. METHODS Adults from the European(More)
The aim of our analysis was to study the association between air pollution and asthma among adults. For this goal, a previously developed "asthma score" was used. Persons aged 25-44 yrs were randomly selected (1991-1993) and followed up (2000-2002) within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II, respectively). The asthma score was(More)
Modeling historic air pollution exposures is often restricted by availability of monitored concentration data. We evaluated back-extrapolation of land use regression (LUR) models for annual mean NO2 concentrations in Great Britain for up to 18 years earlier. LUR variables were created in a geographic information system (GIS) using land cover and road(More)
BACKGROUND Traffic-related air pollution is related with asthma, and this association may be modified by genetic factors. OBJECTIVES We investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms potentially modifying the association between home outdoor levels of modeled nitrogen dioxide and asthma. METHODS Adults from 13 cities of the second European Community(More)