Danielle T. Avery

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T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells are a specialized subset of CD4(+) T cells that localize to B-cell follicles, where they are positioned to provide help for the induction of optimal humoral immune responses. Key features of T(FH) cells are the expressions of CXCR5, ICOS, interleukin (IL)-21 and BCL-6. The requirements for human T(FH) cell development are(More)
High expression of CXCR5 is one of the defining hallmarks of T follicular helper cells (T(FH)), a CD4 Th cell subset that promotes germinal center reactions and the selection and affinity maturation of B cells. CXCR5 is also expressed on 20-25% of peripheral blood human central memory CD4 T cells (T(CM)), although the definitive function of these cells is(More)
Differentiation of B cells into Ig-secreting cells (ISC) is critical for the generation of protective humoral immune responses. Because of the important role played by secreted Ig in host protection against infection, it is necessary to identify molecules that control B cell differentiation. Recently, IL-21 was reported to generate ISC from activated human(More)
Naive B cells can alter the effector function of their Ig molecule by isotype switching, thereby allowing them to secrete not only IgM, but also the switched isotypes IgG, IgA, and IgE. Different isotypes are elicited in response to specific pathogens. Similarly, dysregulated production of switched isotypes underlies the development of various diseases,(More)
The p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) is selectively expressed in leukocytes and is critical for lymphocyte biology. Here we report fourteen patients from seven families who were heterozygous for three different germline, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD (which encodes p110δ). These patients presented with sinopulmonary(More)
The generation of Ig-secreting cells (ISCs) from memory B cells requires interactions between antigen-specific (Ag-specific) B cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. This process must be strictly regulated to ensure sufficient humoral immunity while avoiding production of pathogenic autoantibodies. BAFF, a member of the TNF family, is a key regulator of B(More)
Enhanced secondary Ab responses are a vital component of adaptive immunity, yet little is understood about the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of naive and memory B cells that result in differences in their responses to Ag. Microarray analysis, together with surface and intracellular phenotyping, revealed that memory B cells have increased expression of(More)
Engagement of cytokine receptors by specific ligands activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. The exact roles of STATs in human lymphocyte behavior remain incompletely defined. Interleukin (IL)-21 activates STAT1 and STAT3 and has emerged as a potent regulator of B cell differentiation. We have(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an inhibitory receptor found on immune cells. The consequences of mutations in CTLA4 in humans are unknown. We identified germline heterozygous mutations in CTLA4 in subjects with severe immune dysregulation from four unrelated families. Whereas Ctla4 heterozygous mice have no obvious phenotype, human CTLA4(More)
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for providing the necessary signals to induce differentiation of B cells into memory and Ab-secreting cells. Accordingly, it is important to identify the molecular requirements for Tfh cell development and function. We previously found that IL-12 mediates the differentiation of human CD4(+) T cells to the Tfh(More)