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The p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) is selectively expressed in leukocytes and is critical for lymphocyte biology. Here we report fourteen patients from seven families who were heterozygous for three different germline, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD (which encodes p110δ). These patients presented with sinopulmonary(More)
Differentiation of B cells into Ig-secreting cells (ISC) is critical for the generation of protective humoral immune responses. Because of the important role played by secreted Ig in host protection against infection, it is necessary to identify molecules that control B cell differentiation. Recently, IL-21 was reported to generate ISC from activated human(More)
Isotype switching by murine B cells follows a pattern whereby the proportion of cells undergoing switching increases with division number and is regulated by cytokines. Here we explored whether human B cells behaved in a similar manner. The effect of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, alone or in combination, on Ig isotype switching by highly purified naive human CD40(More)
Naive B cells can alter the effector function of their Ig molecule by isotype switching, thereby allowing them to secrete not only IgM, but also the switched isotypes IgG, IgA, and IgE. Different isotypes are elicited in response to specific pathogens. Similarly, dysregulated production of switched isotypes underlies the development of various diseases,(More)
Memory B cells, when re-exposed to Ag and T cell help, differentiate into Ig-secreting cells (ISC) at the same time as maintaining a residual pool of non-Ig-secreting cells with memory capabilities. To investigate the mechanism underlying this dual process, we followed the fate of human B cells activated in vitro with the T cell-derived signals CD40 ligand(More)
T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells are a specialized subset of CD4(+) T cells that localize to B-cell follicles, where they are positioned to provide help for the induction of optimal humoral immune responses. Key features of T(FH) cells are the expressions of CXCR5, ICOS, interleukin (IL)-21 and BCL-6. The requirements for human T(FH) cell development are(More)
Enhanced secondary Ab responses are a vital component of adaptive immunity, yet little is understood about the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of naive and memory B cells that result in differences in their responses to Ag. Microarray analysis, together with surface and intracellular phenotyping, revealed that memory B cells have increased expression of(More)
Engagement of cytokine receptors by specific ligands activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. The exact roles of STATs in human lymphocyte behavior remain incompletely defined. Interleukin (IL)-21 activates STAT1 and STAT3 and has emerged as a potent regulator of B cell differentiation. We have(More)
High expression of CXCR5 is one of the defining hallmarks of T follicular helper cells (T(FH)), a CD4 Th cell subset that promotes germinal center reactions and the selection and affinity maturation of B cells. CXCR5 is also expressed on 20-25% of peripheral blood human central memory CD4 T cells (T(CM)), although the definitive function of these cells is(More)
The production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is tightly regulated. This is evidenced by the fact that it comprises less than 0.0001% of serum Ig, and aberrant production causes atopic conditions, including allergy, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a well-characterized inducer of IgE by human and murine B cells, whereas interferon-gamma can(More)