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Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and astrocytes constitute macroglia. This review deals with the recent progress related to the origin and differentiation of the oligodendrocytes, their relationships to other neural cells, and functional neuroglial interactions under physiological conditions and in(More)
The destiny of the mitotically active cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in adult rodents is to migrate to the olfactory bulb, where they contribute to the replacement of granular and periglomerular neurons. However, these adult neural progenitors also can be mobilized in periventricular white matter and triggered to differentiate into astrocytes and(More)
Heterozygous, de novo mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene have recently been reported in 12 patients affected by neuropathologically proved Alexander disease. We searched for GFAP mutations in a series of patients who had heterogeneous clinical symptoms but were candidates for Alexander disease on the basis of suggestive(More)
We have isolated and characterized genomic clones containing the mouse myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene. It spans a region of 12.5 kb and consists of eight exons. Its exon-intron structure differs from that of classical MHC-class I genes, with which it is linked in the mouse genome. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5' flanking region reveals that(More)
Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is expressed specifically in the central nervous system (CNS) by myelinating glial cells, the oligodendrocytes. The external location of MOG on myelin sheaths and its late expression during myelinogenesis argue for a role of MOG in the completion of myelin and maintenance of its integrity. MOG is a target(More)
Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is found on the surface of myelinating oligodendrocytes and external lamellae of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system, and it is a target antigen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. We have isolated bovine, mouse, and rat MOG cDNA clones and shown that the developmental(More)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type (CMT1) disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSNI) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy. In most CMT1 families, the disease cosegregates with a 1.5-Mb duplication on chromosome 17p11.2 (CMT1A). A few patients have been found with mutations in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP-22) gene located in(More)
The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is associated with mutations in the gene encoding connexin32 (Cx32), which is expressed in Schwann cells. We have compared the functional properties of 11 Cx32 mutations with those of the wild-type protein by testing their ability to form intercellular channels in the paired oocyte expression system.(More)
We report studies on two patients (a mother and her daughter) presenting with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) phenotype: low nerve conduction velocities of 13-15 m/s and an early onset at the age of walking. DNA analysis of the gene coding for the major peripheral myelin protein PO showed a new point mutation in exon 2, which resulted in substitution of(More)
Remyelination of primary demyelinated lesions is a common feature of experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is also suggested to be the normal response to demyelination during the early stages of MS itself. Many lines of evidence have shown that remyelination is preceded by the division of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the(More)