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Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and astrocytes constitute macroglia. This review deals with the recent progress related to the origin and differentiation of the oligodendrocytes, their relationships to other neural cells, and functional neuroglial interactions under physiological conditions and in(More)
The destiny of the mitotically active cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in adult rodents is to migrate to the olfactory bulb, where they contribute to the replacement of granular and periglomerular neurons. However, these adult neural progenitors also can be mobilized in periventricular white matter and triggered to differentiate into astrocytes and(More)
The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is associated with mutations in the gene encoding connexin32 (Cx32), which is expressed in Schwann cells. We have compared the functional properties of 11 Cx32 mutations with those of the wild-type protein by testing their ability to form intercellular channels in the paired oocyte expression system.(More)
Neurological deficit in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is probably a consequence of synergy between T and B cell responses to CNS antigens. During the demyelinating phase of chronic relapsing EAE in ABH mice, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) responses were increased compared to the inflammatory acute(More)
Alexander disease (AXD) is the first primary astrocytic disorder. This encephalopathy is caused by dominant mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene, encoding the main intermediate filament of astrocyte. Pathologically, this neurodegenerative disease is characterised by dystrophic astrocytes containing intermediate filament aggregates(More)
Remyelination of primary demyelinated lesions is a common feature of experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is also suggested to be the normal response to demyelination during the early stages of MS itself. Many lines of evidence have shown that remyelination is preceded by the division of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the(More)
Axonal loss is now considered a consistent feature of MS pathology and evidence suggests that its accumulation may be the pathological correlate for the development of irreversible disability. In this study, we investigated the features of axonal loss in myelin autoimmunity and tested the hypothesis that loss of axons determines permanent neurological(More)
We report neuropathological, biochemical and molecular studies on two patients with childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, a leukodystrophy recently defined according to clinical and radiological criteria. Both had severe cavitating orthochromatic leukodystrophy without atrophy, predominating in hemispheric(More)
Mutations affecting developmental processes may allow some insight into the complexity of the biological processes involved. In mice, two mutants that affect myelin formation in the central nervous system, jimpy and shiverer, have proved to be useful models for the study of this process. The predominant proteins in myelin are the major myelin proteolipid(More)
Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a specific component of the mammalian central nervous system, is located on the surface of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and the outermost lamellae of mature myelin; it is expressed during the latter steps of myelinogenesis. It has been shown that MOG may play a pathological role in autoimmune demyelinating(More)