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During metastatic colonization, tumor cells must establish a favorable microenvironment or niche that will sustain their growth. However, both the temporal and molecular details of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we found that metastatic initiating cells (MICs) exhibit a high capacity for lung fibroblast activation as a result of Thrombospondin(More)
To examine release of insulin from tissues of the exercising llin, growth hormone, cortisol, and circulating metabolites were studied in five men before, during, and after exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of their maximum work capacity. At rest, insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol were taken up by leg tissues. During exercise arterial plasma insulin(More)
PURPOSE Lamotrigine is an effective add-on therapy against a range of epileptic seizure types. Comparative studies with carbamazepine (CBZ) as monotherapy in newly diagnosed epilepsy suggest similar efficacy. In this study, lamotrigine (LTG) and phenytoin (PHT) are compared. METHODS In a double-blind parallel-groups study, 181 patients with newly(More)
The inhibitory action of botulinum toxin is not limited to the neuromuscular junction. The toxin also blocks the autonomic cholinergic fibres, including the sympathetic fibres to sweat glands. We have previously demonstrated that the toxin produces localized anhidrosis. To determine the dosage, pattern and duration of the anhidrotic effect of botulinum(More)
Angiogenesis is integral to the growth and metastatic spread of tumours, and its targeting is an effective anti-tumour strategy. Currently hundreds of anti-angiogenic therapeutics exist in varying stages of development, a number of which have recently gained US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of various human cancers. One class(More)
The value of locally injected botulinum toxin is emphasised. The toxin was injected directly into the skeletal muscles of eight patients with severe spasticity due to stroke-related hemiplegia. It produced both subjective and objective improvement. The toxin injections were well tolerated and no significant side effects were noted.
1. Six well-trained cyclists and six untrained subjects were studied during and immediately after four successive 7 min periods of exercise at 30, 45, 60 and 75% of their maximal work capacity. 2. Venous blood samples were taken at rest, at the end of each exercise period and 5 min following the end of exercise, for estimation of metabolites in blood and(More)
Study 1 examined the reliability of the ratings assigned to the performance of five sign-and-symptom items drawn from tests of motor impairment in Parkinson's disease. Patients with Parkinson's disease of varying severity performed gait, rising from chair, and hand function items. Video recordings of these performances were rated by a large sample of(More)
Botulinum toxin, a product of Clostridium botulinum, produces presynaptic neuromuscular block by preventing release of acetylcholine from nerve endings. The toxin was injected directly into the skeletal muscles of six patients with severe spasticity due to stroke-related hemiplegia. It produced both subjective and objective improvement. The toxin injections(More)