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Chronic stress may lead to neuronal atrophy and functional impairments within the CNS, and increasing evidence indicates that exercise can protect the brain from these changes. Bax is a key protein of the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) family that complexes within the mitochondrial membrane and forms pores to initiate cellular apoptosis. Herein, we measured cortical(More)
Cat isolated hearts were perfused via the aorta with normothermic arterial blood from donor cats. After 1 hr of equilibration, dl-propranolol (1.9 mg/kg), atenolol (1.65 mg/kg), or physiological saline solution was infused via the aortic cannula. The hearts were made globally ischemic for 1 hr and reperfused for 1 hr. Hearts given saline but not made(More)
This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken in a series of 179 patients to determine whether phenytoin administered soon after head injury lessens the incidence of late posttraumatic epilepsy. When delayed hypersensitivity to phenytoin developed, the patient was switched to phenobarbital. The patients were followed for 18 months to(More)
This prospective randomized controlled clinical trial compares the effects of early parenteral nutrition and traditional delayed enteral nutrition upon the outcome of head-injured patients. Thirty-eight head-injured patients were randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or standard enteral nutrition (SEN). Clinical and nutritional data(More)
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine whether phenytoin administered soon after injury lessens the incidence of epilepsy in the 1st week after severe head trauma. In this study, 244 patients were randomized into either a phenytoin or placebo group. The patients in the phenytoin group were administered phenytoin(More)
Fifty-one brain-injured patients with peak 24-hour admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 4 to 10 were prospectively randomly assigned to receive total parenteral (TPN) or enteral (EN) nutrition. Patients were studied from hospital admission to 18 days postinjury. Outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year(More)
The results of a second operation for tumor removal in 24 adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma were analyzed. The median survival time after reoperation was 14 weeks. Five of the 24 patients lived 6 months or longer after reoperation. Only three of these patients maintained a Karnofsky rating (KR) of at least(More)
The relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) scores obtained during the 1st week after head injury and outcome at 1 year was analyzed in 170 patients. Seventy-two of 76 patients with initial GCS scores of 3 or 4 lived, and only one had a favorable outcome. Favorable and unfavorable outcomes were almost equally divided when the initial GCS scores were(More)
We report the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether phenytoin administered soon after a head injury lessens the incidence of late post-traumatic epilepsy in children. 41 patients were randomized into either a phenytoin or placebo group and followed for 18 months. The patients were administered phenytoin or(More)
Calorie and protein supplementation improves nutritional status. This support may improve outcome and decrease morbidity and mortality in acutely brain-injured patients. Investigators have observed a poor tolerance to enteral feedings after brain injury and have noted that this persists for approximately 14 days postinjury. This delay has been attributed to(More)