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The chick dermis is known to control the formation of feathers and interfeathery skin in a hexagonal pattern. The evidence that the segregation of two types of fibroblasts involves Delta/Notch signalling is based on three facts. Rings of C-Delta-1-expressing fibroblasts precede and delimit the forming feather primordia. C-Delta-1 is uniformly expressed in(More)
To investigate the origin and nature of the signals responsible for specification of the dermatomal lineage, excised axial organs in 2-day-old chick embryos were replaced by grafts of the dorsal neural tube, or the ventral neural tube plus the notochord, or aggregates of cells engineered to produce Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Noggin, BMP-2, Wnt-1, or Wnt-3a. By(More)
The chick dorsal feather-forming dermis originates from the dorsomedial somite and its formation depends primarily on Wnt1 from the dorsal neural tube. We investigate further the origin and specification of dermal progenitors from the medial dermomyotome. This comprises two distinct domains: the dorsomedial lip and a more central region (or intervening(More)
Somites are transient mesodermal structures giving rise to all skeletal muscles of the body, the axial skeleton and the dermis of the back. Somites arise from successive segmentation of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). They appear first as epithelial spheres that rapidly differentiate into a ventral mesenchyme, the sclerotome, and a dorsal epithelial(More)
Sympathetic neurons depend on the classical neurotrophin NGF for survival by the time they innervate their targets, but the mechanisms controlling the onset of NGF responsiveness in developing neuroblasts have not been defined. Immature chick sympathetic neurons are unresponsive to NGF, but express low mRNA levels of the high-affinity NGF receptor trkA.(More)
Feathers, like hairs, first appear as primordia consisting of an epidermal placode associated with a dermal condensation that is necessary for the continuation of their differentiation. Previously, the BMPs have been proposed to inhibit skin appendage formation. We show that the function of specific BMPs during feather development is more complex. BMP2 and(More)
Most of the chick body is covered with feathers, while the tarsometatarsus and the dorsal face of the digits form oblong overlapping scales (scuta) and the plantar face rounded nonoverlapping scales (reticula). Feathers and scuta are made of beta-keratins, while the epidermis of reticula and inter-appendage or apteria (nude regions) express a-keratins.(More)
The dorsal and the ventral trunk integuments of the chick differ in their dermal cell lineage (originating from the somatic and somatopleural mesoderm respectively) and in the distribution of their feather fields. The dorsal macropattern has a large spinal pteryla surrounded by semi-apteria, whereas the ventral skin has a true medial apterium surrounded by(More)
In zoology it is well known that birds are characterized by the presence of feathers, and mammals by hairs. Another common point of view is that avian scales are directly related to reptilian scales. As a skin embryologist, I have been fascinated by the problem of regionalization of skin appendages in amniotes throughout my scientific life. Here I have(More)
This chapter is mostly a review of the pioneering work of the Philippe Sengel school in Grenoble carried out in the late sixties and the seventies. The questions raised concerning the morphogenesis of feather tracts were approached by means of microsurgery on chick embryos. P. Sengel and his wife M. Kieny had the feeling that proteins synthesized by the(More)