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The prospect of assisting disabled patients by translating neural activity from the brain into control signals for prosthetic devices, has flourished in recent years. Current systems rely on neural activity present during natural arm movements. We propose here that neural activity present before or even without natural arm movements can provide an(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a citation analysis to explore the impact of articles published in Health Psychology and determine whether the journal is fulfilling its stated mission. DESIGN Six years of articles (N = 408) representing three editorial tenures from 1993-2003 were selected for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Articles were coded for several(More)
IMPORTANCE Interventions based on behavioral science might reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. OBJECTIVE To assess effects of behavioral interventions and rates of inappropriate (not guideline-concordant) antibiotic prescribing during ambulatory visits for acute respiratory tract infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cluster randomized(More)
Clinicians make many patient care decisions each day. The cumulative cognitive demand of these decisions may erode clinicians' abilities to resist making potentially inappropriate choices. Psychologists, who refer to the erosion of self-control after making repeated decisions as decision fatigue, 1,2 have found evidence that it affects nonmedical(More)
INTRODUCTION Poor data quality can be a serious threat to the validity and generalizability of clinical research findings. The growing availability of electronic administrative and clinical data is accompanied by a growing concern about the quality of these data for observational research and other analytic purposes. Currently, there are no widely accepted(More)
IMPORTANCE "Nudges" that influence decision making through subtle cognitive mechanisms have been shown to be highly effective in a wide range of applications, but there have been few experiments to improve clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of a behavioral "nudge" based on the principle of public commitment in encouraging the judicious(More)
BACKGROUND Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs(More)
Observational research promises to complement experimental research by providing large, diverse populations that would be infeasible for an experiment. Observational research can test its own clinical hypotheses, and observational studies also can contribute to the design of experiments and inform the generalizability of experimental research. Understanding(More)
IMPORTANCE Evidence supports palliative care effectiveness. Given workforce constraints and the costs of new services, payers and providers need help to prioritize their investments. They need to know which patients to target, which personnel to hire, and which services best improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE To inform how payers and providers should identify(More)
BACKGROUND Calls for improvement in end-of-life care have focused attention on the management of pain and other troubling symptoms at the end of life. OBJECTIVE To describe changes in pain intensity and symptom prevalence during the last year of life from 1998 to 2010. DESIGN Observational study. SETTING The HRS (Health and Retirement Study), a(More)