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In experimental animals, injection of gram-negative endotoxin (LPS) decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. To evaluate this phenomenon in a human model of gram-negative sepsis, LPS was administered on two consecutive days to healthy male volunteers during which time a cocktail of antipyrine (AP-250 mg), hexobarbital (HB-500 mg), and(More)
There are few data evaluating plasma and/or peripheral blood monocyte cytokine concentrations/production or attempts to manipulate proinflammatory cytokines in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A pilot project in a general clinical research center evaluated the effects of a step 1 American Heart Association diet plus aerobic exercise with or without 800(More)
UNLABELLED Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely correlated with hepatic steatosis. Simple hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can be a precursor to more serious liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying(More)
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a leading cause of death from liver disease in the United States for which there is no FDA-approved therapy. Abnormal cytokine metabolism is a major feature of ALD. Elevated serum concentration levels of TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha-inducible cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-6, -8, and -18, have been reported in patients(More)
Although S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) has beneficial effects in many hepatic disorders, the effects of SAMe on acute alcohol-induced liver injury are unknown. In the present study, we investigated effects of SAMe on liver injury in mice induced by acute alcohol administration. Male C57BL/6 mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total(More)
Cytokines are low-molecular-weight mediators of cellular communication produced by multiple cell types in the liver, with the Kupffer cell critically important. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-8, and hepatic acute-phase cytokines such as interleukin-6 play a role in modulating certain metabolic(More)
Chemical messengers called cytokines play an important role during the body's initial response to infection (i.e., acute inflammation). Cytokines attract and activate components of the immune system, promote blood clotting, and facilitate the release of additional chemical messengers. In addition, cytokines induce the liver to shift its physiological(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory cytokine activity is increased in many forms of experimental and clinical liver injury including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Monocytes and Kupffer cells produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-6 in response to stimuli such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). This cytokine production(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a mediator of liver injury. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model of TNF-mediated liver cell injury using the Hep G2 cell line. Hep G2 cells normally are insensitive to TNF cytotoxicity, but they were rendered susceptible, or sensitized, to TNF cytotoxicity by inhibitors of RNA and protein(More)
Hepatic deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a critical acquired metabolic abnormality in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and in many experimental models of hepatotoxicity. Subnormal AdoMet, elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and endotoxemia (LPS) are hallmarks of ALD and experimental liver injury. AdoMet deficiency is attributed to its(More)