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The cellular basis of depressive disorders is poorly understood. Recent studies in monkeys indicate that neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus that mediates communication between forebrain and midbrain structures, can increase their activity when an animal fails to receive an expected positive reward or receives a stimulus that predicts aversive(More)
A method for pharmacokinetic studies using cassette dosing associated with serial bleeding in mice is described. PK profiles of four soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors were determined following oral, subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration individually or in cassette dosing. Parent analyses were performed on only 5 microL of whole blood from serial(More)
In former studies, we found evidence for the hypothesis that withdrawal of negative reinforcement presents a major source for stress and despair. Specifically, the removal of a hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of previously reinforced escape behavior and behavioral immobility, indicative of "despair", which also correlated with indices(More)
Disgust may be a key emotion and target for psychotherapeutic interventions in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at explicit and implicit-automatic levels. However, automatically activated disgust reactions in individuals with these disorders have not been studied. Disgust and its correlation with childhood abuse(More)
Individual differences in water maze and open-field performance of aged and adult rats were compared in a cross-sectional study. Three- and 24-month-old rats were classified into superior, moderate, and inferior groups on the basis of escape latencies during hidden platform acquisition and were compared regarding water maze acquisition and extinction, and(More)
In 28- to 30-month-old rats, in vitro short-term and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) were measured in area CA1 of the hippocampus in seven superior and seven inferior learners, that were selected from a pool of 40 rats based on water maze escape performance over a period of 9 days. The aim was to examine whether levels of STP and LTP could account for(More)
The cellular basis of depressive disorders is poorly understood1. Recent studies in monkeys indicate that neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus that mediates communication between forebrain and midbrain structures, can increase their activity when an animal fails to receive an expected positive reward or receives a stimulus that predicts aversive(More)
In humans metabolic changes, particularly in frontal areas of the brain, accompany depressive disorders, but few studies were conducted in animal models of depression. We used hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T to measure the metabolic profiles of the hippocampus and frontal cortex in congenital learned helpless (cLH) and wild-type (WT)(More)
The present study investigated the effect of a single, anesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, on behavioral despair, an animal model of depression. Separate groups of male Wistar rats injected with an anesthetic dose of ketamine (160 mg/kg ip) and tested 3, 7, or 10 days later showed(More)
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was lesioned in adult male Wistar rats (n = 9) and its involvement in coping behavior during forced swim stress examined. Rats remain immobile longer in the second of two swim tests, a phenomenon known as learned despair. Results revealed that, compared to sham-operated controls (n = 8), BNST-lesioned animals(More)