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By using three different assay methods, circulating immune complexes have been detected in 85% of sera from patients with malignant melanoma, and in 77% of sera from patients with breast cancer. These methods were a C1q-binding assay, a double-antibody conglutinin-binding ELISA, and a polyethylene glycol 6000 precipitation technique followed by quantitative(More)
Classical gradient systems have a linear relation between rates and driving forces. In generalized gradient systems we allow for arbitrary relations derived from general non-quadratic dissipation potentials. This paper describes two natural origins for these structures. A first microscopic origin of generalized gradient structures is given by the theory of(More)
A novel technique for the determination of the concentration of influenza virus antihemagglutinin antibody molecules (A), of the equilibrium constant (K) and of the number of epitopes recognized per virus particle (s) is described. The test utilizes measurements of virus-antibody interaction both in a photometric hemagglutination inhibition test and in the(More)
Soluble circulating immune complexes (CIC) are a common finding in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other autoimmune diseases. The predominant immunoglobulin class of most CIC is IgG, which enables these CIC to bind to Fc-IgG-receptor expressing cells. In this study the interaction between soluble CIC from(More)
Circulating immune complexes were determined in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus using a semiautomated PEG-precipitation laser-nephelometer technique. Immunoglobulins IgA, IgG and IgM as well as complement proteins C3c and C4 were quantitatively determined in 2.75% PEG-precipitates. The PEG-precipitates obtained from the sera of healthy(More)
A chronic graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) was induced in adult nonirradiated (B10 x DBA/2)F 1 mice by I.V. injection of live DBA/2 (H-2 d/d) lymphocytes. Although both a class I (K/D) and a class II (I-A/I-E) incompatibility existed in the F l recipients, DBA/2 donor cells were unable to induce the severe lympho-hemopoietic depletion characteristic of(More)
Two laboratory experiments tested the hypothesis that (equality-based) respect from outgroup members facilitates recategorization of the original ingroup and outgroup as a common group. In Experiment 1, we varied respect from outgroup members (low vs. medium vs. high) and measured recipients' willingness to recategorize. As predicted, high respect from an(More)
Past research has demonstrated that equality-based respect is an important antecedent of positive social interaction and group-serving behavior. In the present research we tested whether intragroup equality-based respect affects perceptions of being treated as a human as well as self-dehumanization. In Experiment 1, we found that high respect received from(More)
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