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Mast cells play a detrimental role in IgE-dependent allergic reactions. In contrast, a protective function for mast cells has been proposed on the basis of some worm infection models. No reports exist on the in vivo significance of these cells in bacterial infections. Here we use congenitally mast-cell-deficient W/Wv mice and normal +/+ littermates to(More)
Dithiocarbamates and iron chelators were recently considered for the treatment of AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we show that dithiocarbamates and metal chelators can potently block the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a transcription factor involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression, signaling,(More)
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, typically react to injuries or chronic diseases with proliferation and expression of differentiated features, such as production of cytokines associated with inflammatory events. Regulation and control of microglial cytokine expression, therefore, is a major focus of scientific interest. It has been shown(More)
Recent studies indicate that chronic psychosocial stress favors the development of generalized immune dysfunction. During stressor exposure neuroendocrine factors affect numbers and functionality of leukocytes. However, the exact mechanisms leading to systemic changes in immune functions during stress are still not clear. During chronic subordinate colony(More)
Dear Editor, We would like to thank Gutzmer et al. (2012) for their comments on our paper " Commercially available antibodies against the human and murine histamine H 4-receptor lack specificity " (Beermann et al. 2011), discussing the validation of commercially available antibodies directed against the his-tamine H 4 receptor. In their communication(More)
The influence of endogenous and exogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on metastasis was investigated in an experimental fibrosarcoma metastasis model. A single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human (rh) TNF or recombinant mouse (rm) TNF into mice 5 h before intravenous inoculation of methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma cells (CFS1) induced a(More)
Mast cells are thought to contribute significantly to the pathology and mortality associated with anaphylaxis and other allergic disorders. However, studies using genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-KitW/KitW-v and congenic wild-type (WBB6F1-+/+) mice indicate that mast cells can also promote health, by participating in natural immune responses to(More)
Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling is known to play a key role in embryonic lymphoid organ formation as well as maintenance of lymphoid architecture. Activation of the LTbetaR is induced by either the heterotrimeric lymphotoxin-alpha(1)beta(2) (LTalpha(1)beta(2)) or the homotrimeric LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible(More)
Growth of solid fibrosarcoma tumors in mice was inhibited by the release of a solublelymphotoxin-beta receptor inhibitor (LTbetaR-immunoglobulin fusion protein) from the tumor cells. Tumor growth arrest in mice deficient in the ligand LTalpha1beta2 demonstrated the requirement for activation of the LTbetaR on the tumor cells by host cell-derived(More)
BACKGROUND The function of T helper cell subsets in vivo depends on their location, and one hallmark of T cell differentiation is the sequential regulation of migration-inducing chemokine receptor expression. CC-chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is a trait of tissue-homing effector T cells and has recently been described as a receptor on T helper type 17 (Th17)(More)