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Dithiocarbamates and iron chelators were recently considered for the treatment of AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we show that dithiocarbamates and metal chelators can potently block the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a transcription factor involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression, signaling,(More)
Mast cells play a detrimental role in IgE-dependent allergic reactions. In contrast, a protective function for mast cells has been proposed on the basis of some worm infection models. No reports exist on the in vivo significance of these cells in bacterial infections. Here we use congenitally mast-cell-deficient W/Wv mice and normal +/+ littermates to(More)
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, typically react to injuries or chronic diseases with proliferation and expression of differentiated features, such as production of cytokines associated with inflammatory events. Regulation and control of microglial cytokine expression, therefore, is a major focus of scientific interest. It has been shown(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells provide effective antitumoral activity in the blood stream of mice, leading to reduced metastasis. There are, however, tumor cells that metastasize despite the presence of an intact NK system. The capability of tumor cells to induce platelet aggregation, on the other hand, correlates with their enhanced metastatic potential. A(More)
Although TNF is a major proinflammatory cytokine, increasing evidence indicates that TNF also has immunosuppressive feedback effects. We have demonstrated in this study that, in both resting and activated states, mouse peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) expressed remarkably higher surface levels of TNFR2 than CD4(+)CD25(-) T effector cells(More)
The influence of endogenous and exogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on metastasis was investigated in an experimental fibrosarcoma metastasis model. A single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human (rh) TNF or recombinant mouse (rm) TNF into mice 5 h before intravenous inoculation of methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma cells (CFS1) induced a(More)
Recent studies indicate that chronic psychosocial stress favors the development of generalized immune dysfunction. During stressor exposure neuroendocrine factors affect numbers and functionality of leukocytes. However, the exact mechanisms leading to systemic changes in immune functions during stress are still not clear. During chronic subordinate colony(More)
TNFR2 is predominantly expressed by a subset of human and mouse CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs). In this study, we characterized the phenotype and function of TNFR2(+) Tregs in peripheral lymphoid tissues of normal and tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. We found that TNFR2 was expressed on 30-40% of the Tregs of the peripheral activated/memory(More)
Dear Editor, We would like to thank Gutzmer et al. (2012) for their comments on our paper " Commercially available antibodies against the human and murine histamine H 4-receptor lack specificity " (Beermann et al. 2011), discussing the validation of commercially available antibodies directed against the his-tamine H 4 receptor. In their communication(More)
Mast cells are thought to contribute significantly to the pathology and mortality associated with anaphylaxis and other allergic disorders. However, studies using genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-KitW/KitW-v and congenic wild-type (WBB6F1-+/+) mice indicate that mast cells can also promote health, by participating in natural immune responses to(More)