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In variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, prions (PrP(Sc)) enter the body with contaminated foodstuffs and can spread from the intestinal entry site to the central nervous system (CNS) by intercellular transfer from the lymphoid system to the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Although several means and different cell types have been proposed to have a role, the(More)
Dithiocarbamates and iron chelators were recently considered for the treatment of AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we show that dithiocarbamates and metal chelators can potently block the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a transcription factor involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression, signaling,(More)
Mast cells play a detrimental role in IgE-dependent allergic reactions. In contrast, a protective function for mast cells has been proposed on the basis of some worm infection models. No reports exist on the in vivo significance of these cells in bacterial infections. Here we use congenitally mast-cell-deficient W/Wv mice and normal +/+ littermates to(More)
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, typically react to injuries or chronic diseases with proliferation and expression of differentiated features, such as production of cytokines associated with inflammatory events. Regulation and control of microglial cytokine expression, therefore, is a major focus of scientific interest. It has been shown(More)
Binding activity for nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) consensus probes was studied in nuclear extracts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 15 septic patients (10 surviving and 5 not surviving). Nonsurvivors could be distinguished from survivors by an increase in NFkappaB binding activity during the observation period (P < 0.001). The increase in(More)
Endotoxic reactions induced in mice by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were examined. Mice showed a dose-dependent hypothermia after intravenous TNF injection which was similar to a reaction to lipopolysaccharide injection. Plasma glucose levels were decreased, and plasma lactate levels were increased. Blood hematocrit levels were increased(More)
The Cre-loxP technology allows the introduction of somatic gene alterations in a tissue and/or cell type specific manner. The development of transgenes that target Cre expression to specific cell types is a critical component in this system. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase under the(More)
Following a severe septic abdominal infection induced by sublethal cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice, a phase of depressed immune reactivity occurred two days after CLP characterized by a reduced capacity to produce TNF. To determine whether this reduced TNF production causes immunoparalysis as determined by increased susceptibility to bacterial(More)
The lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) pathway is critical for maintenance of organized lymphoid structures and is involved in the development of colitis. To investigate the mechanisms by which LTbetaR activation contributes to the pathology of chronic inflammation we used a soluble LTbetaR-Ig fusion protein as a competitive inhibitor of LTbetaR activation(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells provide effective antitumoral activity in the blood stream of mice, leading to reduced metastasis. There are, however, tumor cells that metastasize despite the presence of an intact NK system. The capability of tumor cells to induce platelet aggregation, on the other hand, correlates with their enhanced metastatic potential. A(More)