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We investigate the application of hyperosmotic optical clearing agents to improve the image contrast and penetration depth in two-photon microscopy of human dermis ex vivo. We show that the agents glycerol, propylene glycol, and glucose all convey significant improvements and we provide results on their dynamic behaviour and the reversibility of the effect.(More)
Caveolae are non-clathrin invaginations of the plasma membrane in most cell types; they are involved in signalling functions and molecule trafficking, thus modulating several biological functions, including cell growth, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The major structural protein in caveolae is caveolin-1, which is known to act as a key regulator in cancer(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and plays an important role in tumour growth. In this study, inducible NOS (iNOS) expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 melanocytic naevi (13 common melanocytic naevi, six Spitz naevi, and 15 so-called 'dysplastic naevi'), ten cutaneous melanomas in situ, 50 stage I invasive(More)
The correct classification of lymphoproliferative disorders provides valuable information regarding subsequent clinical evolution of the disease. The ability of pathologists to distinguish such lesions is generally low, especially when dealing with minimal lymphoid infiltrates. To improve the efficacy of histopathology in the diagnosis of early lesions of(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the success of immunotherapy directed at inhibiting of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand (L)1 signaling, it is not established whether PD-L1 expression correlates with the clinical response and outcome in different tumors. The present meta-analysis investigates whether the PD-L1 status, detected by immunohistochemistry, is associated(More)
Acetaminophen [N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)] is the most common antipyretic/analgesic medicine worldwide. If APAP is overdosed, its metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinoneimine (NAPQI), causes liver damage. However, epidemiological evidence has associated previous use of therapeutic APAP doses with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and(More)
BACKGROUND Cutaneous melanoma spreads preferentially through the lymphatic route and sentinel lymph node (SLN) status is regarded as the most important predictor of survival. AIMS To evaluate whether tumour lymphangiogenesis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is related to the risk of SLN metastasis and to clinical outcome(More)
Angiogenesis is critical in melanoma progression and metastasis and relies on the synthesis and release of proangiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). S100A13 is a small calcium-binding protein that facilitates the release of FGF-1, the prototype of the FGF family. S100A13 is upregulated(More)
BACKGROUND Pigmented Bowen's disease (BD) (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) has been rarely described among white patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS We report the case of a 48-year-old white male presenting a lesion of pigmented BD on his left thigh, clinically mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma. RESULTS Naked-eye physical examination revealed a(More)