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Rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior parietal cortex, or the basolateral complex of the amygdala. The animals were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance and tested 24 h later. Prior (10 min) to the retention test, through the(More)
Rats were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance and tested either 3 h or 31 days later. Ten minutes prior to the retention test, through indwelling cannulae placed in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, they received 0.5 microl infusions of: saline, a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline), the glutamate NMDA receptor blocker,(More)
It has been assumed for over a century that short-term memory (STM) processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory (LTM) is being formed, a process that takes hours. A major question is whether STM is merely a step towards LTM, or a separate entity. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into(More)
Rats received, through bilaterally implanted indwelling cannulae, 0.5 microliter infusions of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline2,3-dione (CNQX) (0.5 microgram), D-2-amino-5-phophono pentanoic acid (AP5) (5.0 micrograms), muscimol (0.5 microgram), scopolamine (2.0 micrograms), SCH23390 (2.5 micrograms), saline or a vehicle into the CA1 region of the hippocampus, or(More)
Recent pharmacological findings have shown that retrieval of one-trial avoidance learning requires glutamate receptors, cAMP-dependent protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus, entorhinal, posterior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex. It requires AMPA but not other type of glutamate receptors or the protein kinases in the(More)
Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory (passive) avoidance, and tested for short- and long-term memory of this task at 1.5-3.0 and at 24 h from training, respectively. At various times after training (0, 22, 45, 90, 135 or 175 min) they received a 0.5 microl(More)
Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the entorhinal or posterior parietal cortex or in the amygdaloid nucleus were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory (passive) avoidance using a 0.3 mA footshock. At 0, 3, 6 or 9 h after training, they received localized 0.5 microliter infusions into these areas of a vehicle, or of 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin(More)
The dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex are critical for immediate memory processing. The possibility has been raised that those two areas may also contribute to long-term memory formation. Here, we studied the role of specific receptors in dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex in immediate and in long-term memory formation of one-trial inhibitory(More)
From mollusks to mammals the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) appears to be an important step in the formation of long-term memory (LTM). Here we show that a 5 min exposure to a novel environment (open field) 1 hr after acquisition of a one-trial inhibitory avoidance training hinders both the formation of LTM for the avoidance task(More)