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AIMS To compare the incorporation rate (ICR) of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair between guinea pigs and humans, and to assess the relationship between ethanol exposure and FAEE concentrations in hair. METHODS Published data from pregnant guinea pigs, including maximum blood ethanol concentration (BEC), dosage regimen, and total hair FAEE(More)
Measuring levels of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair has been recently shown to discriminate between adult heavy and non-drinkers. Here, we review the potential of neonatal FAEE measurement in detecting infants exposed to alcohol in utero by outlining current progress in the development of a neonatal hair test for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the incidence of antenatal complications among a cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women over a 10-year period. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of all HIV-positive pregnant women receiving multidisciplinary prenatal care at an urban tertiary care centre from March 2000 to March 2010. Collected data included the presence of(More)
The diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a difficult task, especially in cases where clear, physical markers of in utero alcohol exposure are not apparent. Reviewed in the following paper are some older tools for screening alcohol use in pregnancy and present novel approaches to the diagnosis of FASD, including ethanol biomarker development to(More)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is prevalent among pregnant women despite the well-known adverse effects of these substances imposed on the developing fetus and immense public health education efforts. Confirmation of gestational exposures to these compounds have relied mostly on maternal self-reporting, which is often underestimated because of guilt,(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to cause fetal renal damage in pregnancy. Due to conflicting reports in the literature, their safety after first trimester exposure has been debated. Our aim was to determine whether the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the first trimester of pregnancy is(More)
There is a public and professional debate on the usefulness of alcohol warning labels. This paper presents the major arguments in favor and against such labeling in the context of alcohol use in pregnancy. lcohol warning labels were initially introduced in 1989 to provide the public with repetitive reminders of the teratogenic potential of alcohol use.(More)
BACKGROUND Women in their childbearing years often require drug therapy for allergic conditions. Loratadine, a newer nonsedating antihistamine, is often used because of its preferred side effect profile. To date no published data exist on the safety of loratadine use in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the use of loratadine in the first(More)
Measuring levels of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair has been a useful way to discriminate between adult heavy and nondrinkers. Extending the use of FAEE into neonatal hair to objectively identify children exposed to alcohol in utero may revolutionize current methods used to diagnose fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Here we confirm for the(More)
Elevated levels of fatty acid ethyl esters have been documented in the meconium of neonates born to heavily drinking mothers. Recently, accumulation of FAEE has been documented in the hair of drinking adults. To be able to use this test in the diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, one needs to establish baseline FAEE levels in infants born to(More)