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Fungi and bacteria compete with an arsenal of secreted molecules for their ecological niche. This repertoire represents a rich and inexhaustible source for antibiotics and fungicides. Antimicrobial peptides are an emerging class of fungal defense molecules that are promising candidates for pharmaceutical applications. Based on a co-cultivation system, we(More)
The DNA sequence analysis of the F0F1-ATPase operon of the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae predicted that the subunit b, encoded by the gene atpF, is a lipoprotein of the murein lipoprotein type of Escherichia coli. Here we experimentally verify this prediction by metabolic labeling of subunit b with [14C]palmitic acid and by in vivo interfering with the(More)
Community differentiation is a fundamental topic of the social sciences, and its prehistoric origins in Europe are typically assumed to lie among the complex, densely populated societies that developed millennia after their Neolithic predecessors. Here we present the earliest, statistically significant evidence for such differentiation among the first(More)
Due to its intuitive learning algorithms and classification behavior, learning vector quantization (LVQ) enjoys a wide popularity in diverse application domains. In recent years, the classical heuristic schemes have been accompanied by variants which can be motivated by a statistical framework such as robust soft LVQ (RSLVQ). In its original form, LVQ and(More)