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Control of pathogens by formation of abscesses and granulomas is a major strategy of the innate immune system, especially when effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity are insufficient. We show in human listeriosis that DCs expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), together with macrophages, are major cellular components of suppurative granulomas in(More)
CD147 is involved in many physiological functions, such as lymphocyte responsiveness, spermatogenesis, implantation, fertilization and neurological functions at early stages of development. Here we specifically review the role of CD147 in cancer. We focus on the following aspects: expression of CD147 in malignant versus normal tissues and its possible(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Dendritic cell activation through ligation of pattern recognition receptors leading to full functional maturation causes induction of CD8(+) T-cell immunity through increased delivery of costimulatory signals instead of tolerance. Here we investigate whether organ-resident antigen-presenting cells, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial(More)
Interleukin 6 (IL6) mediates pleiotropic physiological functions through its interaction with the IL6 receptor (IL6R). Signal transduction can occur via cis- and trans-signaling. The role of IL6/IL6R interaction via autocrine and paracrine loops in tumor proliferation and progression is discussed. The potential role of IL6/IL6R interaction in different(More)
A hallmark of various human malignancies is the expression of immunoinhibitory factors within the tumor microenvironment. There is indirect evidence based on in vitro experiments that tumor-infiltrating T cells in human malignancies are suppressed by such factors. Still, direct evidence of the influence of individual inhibitory factors on immune cells in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) play a key role in cellular regulation and, if deregulated, in the development of neoplastic disorders including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). RNAs from primary cells of 50 treatment-naive CLL patients and peripheral B cells of 14 healthy donors were applied to miRNA expression profiling using bead chip technology. In CLL cells, a(More)
BACKGROUND The MAQC project demonstrated that microarrays with comparable content show inter- and intra-platform reproducibility. However, since the content of gene databases still increases, the development of new generations of microarrays covering new content is mandatory. To better understand the potential challenges updated microarray content might(More)
L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) is a neuronal adhesion molecule which is expressed in many tumor entities. L1-CAM was shown to be involved in proliferation, invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. L1-CAM is engaged in homophilic interactions and complexes with many other ligands in a context-dependent manner. Activation and modulation of the(More)
Activated leucocyte adhesion molecule (ALCAM) was originally identified as a transmembrane receptor which is involved in T-cell activation and has other still unresolved functions in hematopoiesis, development, inflammation and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. ALCAM is a member of a subfamily of immunoglobulin receptors with five(More)
Immune-mediated tumor rejection relies on fully functional T-cell responses and neutralization of an adverse tumor microenvironment. In clinical trials, we detected peptide-specific but non-tumor-reactive and therefore not fully functional CD8(+) T cells post-vaccination against tumor antigens. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind nontumor(More)