Daniela Carulli

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We developed a method to extract differentially chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are diffusely present in the central nervous system (CNS) matrix and CSPGs that are present in the condensed matrix of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Adult rat brain was sequentially extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), TBS-containing detergent, 1 m NaCl, and 6 m(More)
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix restrict plasticity in the adult central nervous system and their digestion with chondroitinase reactivates plasticity. However the structures in the extracellular matrix that restrict plasticity are unknown. There are many changes in the extracellular matrix as critical periods for plasticity(More)
The decrease in plasticity that occurs in the central nervous system during postnatal development is accompanied by the appearance of perineuronal nets (PNNs) around the cell body and dendrites of many classes of neuron. These structures are composed of extracellular matrix molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan (HA),(More)
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the CNS after injury and inhibit axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) chains. We have analysed the mRNA levels of the CS-GAG synthesizing enzymes and measured the CS-GAG disaccharide composition by chromatography and immunocytochemistry. Chondroitin(More)
Extracellular matrix molecules accumulate around central nervous system neurons during postnatal development, forming so-called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs play a role in restricting plasticity at the end of critical periods. In the adult rat cerebellum, PNNs are found around large, deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons and Golgi neurons and are composed(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are dense extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form around many neuronal cell bodies and dendrites late in development. They contain several chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, link proteins and tenascin-R. Their time of appearance correlates with the ending of the critical period for plasticity, and they(More)
Structural remodeling or repair of neural circuits depends on the balance between intrinsic neuronal properties and regulatory cues present in the surrounding microenvironment. These processes are also influenced by experience, but it is still unclear how external stimuli modulate growth-regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system. We asked whether(More)
Stroke is a common and disabling global health-care problem, which is the third most common cause of death and one of the main causes of acquired adult disability in many countries. Rehabilitation interventions are a major component of patient care. In the last few years, brain stimulation, mirror therapy, action observation, or mental practice with motor(More)
In the adult central nervous system (CNS) subsets of neurons are enwrapped by densely organized extracellular matrix structures, called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are formed at the end of critical periods and contribute to synapse stabilization. Enzymatic degradation of PNNs or genetic deletion of specific PNN components leads to the prolongation of the(More)
In the adult rodent brain, subsets of neurons are surrounded by densely organised extracellular matrix called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs consist of hyaluronan, tenascin-R, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), and the link proteins Crtl1 and Bral2. PNNs restrict plasticity at the end of critical periods and can be visualised with Wisteria(More)