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We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,713 individuals of European ancestry with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 3,978 controls. After replication in 3,361 cases and 4,573 controls, we observed two strong association signals, one in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA; rs2736990, OR = 1.23, P = 2.24 x 10(-16)) and another at the MAPT(More)
Over the past 15 years the use of transcranial B-mode sonography to assess brainstem and subcortical brain structures has become an important tool for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various movement disorders. The most widely recognised finding for movement disorders has been an increase in echogenicity of the substantia nigra, an area of the(More)
The present paper summarizes recommendations on transcranial sonography (TCS) application in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from a consensus meeting of the European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics. TCS of distinct infra- and supratentorial brain structures detects characteristic changes in several movement disorders, such as(More)
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to contribute to the etiology of PD. Although most cases are sporadic, recent evidence points to a number of genes involved in familial variants of PD. Among(More)
Recently an increased echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) was demonstrated by transcranial ultrasound (TCS). In this study we set out to compare SN echogenicitiy with disease characteristics (time of onset, duration, toxin exposure) in a large patients sample. Patients' history and exposure to toxins were(More)
Mutations in the acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, responsible for the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD), are the strongest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known to date. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from subjects with GD and PD harbouring GBA1 mutations, and differentiate them into midbrain(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with Parkinson disease characteristically exhibit an increased echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) on transcranial sonography, a new neuroimaging technique. The same echo feature of the SN can be identified in 9% of healthy adults. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relevance of the echogenic SN in healthy adults. DESIGN In the first(More)
More than 800 published genetic association studies have implicated dozens of potential risk loci in Parkinson's disease (PD). To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a dedicated online resource, PDGene, that comprehensively collects and meta-analyzes all published studies in the field. A systematic literature screen of -27,000(More)
alpha-Synuclein is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of both the rare familial and the common sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. Previous reports primarily have tested the association of alpha-synuclein promoter polymorphisms with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, but results are controversial. We first characterized the linkage(More)