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The term vasospasm is commonly used to describe constriction of cerebral blood vessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage which results in the restriction of blood flow and ischemia in affected portions of the brain. The pathophysiological changes that underlie vascular constriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage include changes within the vessel walls(More)
Minocycline is a member of the tetracycline class of molecules with broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. The unique properties of minocycline result in increased tissue distribution when compared with the other tetracyclines. Of particular interest is the ability of minocycline to diffuse into the central nervous system at clinically effective levels. Aside(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation and survival via its effects on transcription, translation and autophagy. The activity of mTOR is controlled by a number of nutrient and energy sensing pathways, inhibiting cell proliferation under conditions of deprivation. In addition, mTOR has been(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide with multiple neuroprotective properties. In addition, it is well tolerated in high doses with minimal side effects. The purposes of this study were to determine whether carnosine is neuroprotective in permanent focal cerebral ischemia and to determine potential mechanisms of(More)
Mast cell tumors are among the most commonly seen tumors of the skin in dogs and are more highly aggressive than mast cell tumors of other species. Some breeds display a markedly higher incidence of mast cell tumor development than others and appear to have some genetic predisposition. Recently, mutations have been found in canine mast cell tumor tissues(More)
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. This review outlines the pathways that lead to cell death following stroke, and also summarizes the current literature on the phenomenon of ischemic tolerance. Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism by which neurons are protected(More)
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we further characterized the effects of carnosine treatment in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and compared them with its related peptides anserine and N-acetylated carnosine. We also evaluated the(More)
Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derivative from Centella asiatica, has shown biological effects such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and protection against glutamate- or beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. We investigated the neuroprotective effect of asiatic acid in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. Various doses of asiatic acid (30, 75, or 165(More)
Statins are currently among the most commonly prescribed agents for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Statins reduce serum cholesterol levels by reversibly inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, in the nanomolar range. Mounting evidence suggests that in addition to their(More)