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A theoretical model describes how an intermittent swimming style can be energetically advantageous over continuous swimming at high average velocities. Kinematic data are collected from high-speed ciné pictures of free swimming cod and saithe at high velocities in a burst-and-coast style. These data suggest that fish make use of the advantages shown by(More)
Swimming movements in boxfishes were much more complex and varied than classical descriptions indicated. At low to moderate rectilinear swimming speeds (<5 TL s(-1), where TL is total body length), they were entirely median- and paired-fin swimmers, apparently using their caudal fins for steering. The pectoral and median paired fins generate both the thrust(More)
Boxfishes (family Ostraciidae) are tropical reef-dwelling marine bony fishes that have about three-fourths of their body length encased in a rigid bony test. As a result, almost all of their swimming movements derive from complex combinations of movements of their median and paired fins (MPF locomotion). In terms of both body design and swimming(More)
Boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae) are rigid-body, multi-propulsor swimmers that exhibit unusually small amplitude recoil movements during rectilinear locomotion. Mechanisms producing the smooth swimming trajectories of these fishes are unknown, however. Therefore, we have studied the roles the bony carapaces of these fishes play in generating this dynamic(More)
Physical limits on swimming speed of lunate tail propelled aquatic animals are proposed. A hydrodynamic analysis, applying experimental data wherever possible, is used to show that small swimmers (roughly less than a metre long) are limited by the available power, while larger swimmers at a few metres below the water surface are limited by cavitation.(More)
We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies(More)
To better understand how elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) use negative buoyancy to reduce energy metabolism and prolong dive duration, we modelled the energetic cost of transit and deep foraging dives in an elephant seal. A numerical integration technique was used to model the effects of swim speed, descent and ascent angles, and modes of locomotion(More)
widely utilized to examine ROS levels. However, measurements based on redox-sensitive dyes such as DCFH can be problematic because they depend on dye uptake and lack any specificity towards a particular type of ROS. The advent of protein-based redox sensors like redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) have improved specificity to particular ROS and can be targeted to(More)