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Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary flavorings that exhibit antimutagenic activity against mutagen-induced and spontaneous mutations in bacteria. Although these compounds were antimutagenic against chromosomal mutations in mammalian cells, they have not been studied for antimutagenesis against spontaneous gene mutations in mammalian cells.(More)
Single-strand breaks (SSBs) can occur in cells either directly, or indirectly following initiation of base excision repair (BER). SSBs generally have blocked termini lacking the conventional 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups and require further processing prior to DNA synthesis and ligation. XRCC1 is devoid of any known enzymatic activity, but it can(More)
Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutagens that effectively inhibit both induced and spontaneous mutations. We have shown previously that VAN and CIN reduced the spontaneous mutant frequency in Salmonella TA104 (hisG428, rfa, DeltauvrB, pKM101) by approximately 50% and that both compounds significantly reduced mutations at GC sites but(More)
Although it is recognized that many common complex diseases are a result of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors, studies of gene-environment interaction remain a challenge and have had limited success to date. Given the current state-of-the-science, NIH sought input on ways to accelerate investigations of gene-environment interplay in health and(More)
BACKGROUND Cells respond to environmental stressors through several key pathways, including response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient and ATP sensing, DNA damage response (DDR), and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria play a central role in these pathways not only through energetics and ATP production but also through metabolites generated in the(More)
Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis(More)
Halonitromethanes (HNMs) are a recently identified class of disinfection by-products (DPBs) in drinking water that are mutagenic in Salmonella and potent inducers of DNA strand breaks in mammalian cells. Here we compared the mutagenic potencies of the HNMs to those of their halomethane (HM) homologues by testing all nine HNMs and seven of the nine HMs(More)
Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutagens that, when added to assay plates, reduced the spontaneous mutant frequency in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA104 (hisG428, rfa, uvrB, pKM101) by 50%. To date, no study has demonstrated whether or not the antimutagenic effects of an agent are due to a reduction in all classes of mutations or(More)
UNLABELLED Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat(More)
BACKGROUND The term "exposome" was coined in 2005 to underscore the importance of the environment to human health and to bring research efforts in line with those on the human genome. The ability to characterize environmental exposures through biomonitoring is key to exposome research efforts. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to describe why traditional and(More)