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Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is central to animal psychology, behavioural genetics,(More)
The widely held hypothesis that enlarged brains have evolved as an adaptation to cope with novel or altered environmental conditions lacks firm empirical support. Here, we test this hypothesis for a major animal group (birds) by examining whether large-brained species show higher survival than small-brained species when introduced to nonnative locations.(More)
Some alien species cause substantial impacts, yet most are innocuous. Given limited resources, forecasting risks from alien species will help prioritise management. Given that risk assessment (RA) approaches vary widely, a synthesis is timely to highlight best practices. We reviewed quantitative and scoring RAs, integrating > 300 publications into arguably(More)
Theory suggests that introduction effort (propagule size or number) should be a key determinant of establishment success for exotic species. Unfortunately, however, propagule pressure is not recorded for most introductions. Studies must therefore either use proxies whose efficacy must be largely assumed, or ignore effort altogether. The results of such(More)
For an animal invading a novel region, the ability to develop new behaviors should facilitate the use of novel food resources and hence increase its survival in the new environment. However, the need to explore new resources may entail costs such as exposing the animal to unfamiliar predators. These two opposing forces result in an exploration-avoidance(More)
Dunking behaviour, the dipping of food in water, has been anecdotally observed in more than 25 species of birds in the wild, but its function and ecology have not been systematically studied. In experiments conducted in the field and in captivity on Carib grackles, Quiscalus lugubris, in Barbados, we showed that: (1) dunking rate in the field was influenced(More)
Several comparative research programs have focused on the cognitive, life history and ecological traits that account for variation in brain size. We review one of these programs, a program that uses the reported frequency of behavioral innovation as an operational measure of cognition. In both birds and primates, innovation rate is positively correlated(More)
Behavioural flexibility has long been thought to provide advantages for animals when they invade novel environments. This hypothesis has recently received empirical support in a study of avian species introduced to New Zealand, but it remains to be determined whether behavioural flexibility is a general mechanism influencing invasion success. In this study,(More)
Despite considerable current interest in biological invasions, the common life-history characteristics of successful invaders remain elusive. The widely held hypothesis that successful invaders have high reproductive rates has received little empirical support; however, alternative possibilities are seldom considered. Combining a global comparative analysis(More)
An important pattern in host-parasite assemblages is a higher intensity of parasites in juveniles than in adults, but the reasons for these differences remain obscure. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed: (1) heavily parasitized juveniles die before being recruited into the adult population ('selection' hypothesis); (2) the(More)