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The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) and their relationship to the genetic code are examined from the evolutionary perspective. Despite a loose correlation between codon assignments and AARS evolutionary relationships, the code is far too highly structured to have been ordered merely through the evolutionary wanderings of these enzymes. Nevertheless, the(More)
The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood.(More)
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, comprises a catalytic C subunit and two distinct regulatory subunits, A and B. The RCN1 gene encodes one of three A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA insertion mutation at this locus impairs root curling, seedling organ elongation and apical(More)
The genome sequence of the genetically tractable, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis contains 1,722 protein-coding genes in a single circular chromosome of 1,661,137 bp. Of the protein-coding genes (open reading frames [ORFs]), 44% were assigned a function, 48% were conserved but had unknown or uncertain functions, and 7.5%(More)
A wheat genomic library was screened with two synthetic oligonucleotides (24 and 25 bases in length) complementary to a partial cDNA clone encoding a glutenin gene [Thompson et al. (1983) Theor. Appl. Genet. 67, 87-96]. Glutenins are large molecular weight aggregated proteins of grain endosperm, and major determinants of bread making quality of wheat. Of(More)
The sequencing of euryarchaeal genomes has suggested that the essential protein lysyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase (LysRS) is absent from such organisms. However, a single 62-kilodalton protein with canonical LysRS activity was purified from Methanococcus maripaludis, and the gene that encodes this protein was cloned. The predicted amino acid sequence of(More)
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the universal precursor of tetrapyrroles, such as chlorophyll and heme. The major control of chlorophyll biosynthesis is at the step of ALA formation. In the chloroplasts of plants, as in Escherichia coli, ALA is derived from the glutamate of Glu-tRNA via the two-step C5 pathway. The first enzyme, Glu-tRNA reductase, catalyzes(More)
The three genes, gatC, gatA, and gatB, which constitute the transcriptional unit of the Bacillus subtilis glutamyl-tRNAGln amidotransferase have been cloned. Expression of this transcriptional unit results in the production of a heterotrimeric protein that has been purified to homogeneity. The enzyme furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged(More)
5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a precursor in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles including chlorophylls and heme. The formation of ALA involves two enzymatic steps which take place in the chloroplast in plants. The first enzyme, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and the second enzyme, glutamate-1-semialdehyde-2,1-aminomutase, are encoded by the nuclear HEMA and GSA(More)
Asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn-tRNA) and glutaminyl-tRNA (Gln-tRNA) are essential components of protein synthesis. They can be formed by direct acylation by asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) or glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS). The alternative route involves transamidation of incorrectly charged tRNA. Examination of the preliminary genomic sequence of the(More)