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The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) provides genome information for sequenced chordate genomes with a particular focus on human, mouse, zebrafish and rat. Our resources include evidenced-based gene sets for all supported species; large-scale whole genome multiple species alignments across vertebrates and clade-specific alignments for eutherian(More)
Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) creates tools and data resources to facilitate genomic analysis in chordate species with an emphasis on human, major vertebrate model organisms and farm animals. Over the past year we have increased the number of species that we support to 77 and expanded our genome browser with a new scrollable overview and improved(More)
Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) is a genomic interpretation system providing the most up-to-date annotations, querying tools and access methods for chordates and key model organisms. This year we released updated annotation (gene models, comparative genomics, regulatory regions and variation) on the new human assembly, GRCh38, although we continue to(More)
The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer(More)
Model organisms are becoming increasingly important for the study of complex diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an experimental model for T1D having been bred to develop the disease spontaneously in a process that is similar to humans. Genetic analysis of the NOD mouse has identified around 50 disease loci, which(More)
Potassium channels in membranes of isolated Necturus enterocytes were studied using the patch-clamp technique. The most frequent channel observed had a conductance of 170 pS and reversal potential of 0 mV in symmetrical potassium-rich solutions. Channels were highly K- selective. Channel activity was modulated by membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+(More)
1. The whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the ionic currents of enterocytes isolated from the small intestine epithelium of Necturus maculosus. 2. When enterocytes were bathed in a physiological Ringer solution and dialysed with a K(+)-rich intracellular solution containing 1.5 x 10(-7) M intracellular Ca2+,(More)
The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (VEGA) database (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk), initially designed as a community resource for browsing manual annotation of the human genome project, now contains five reference genomes (human, mouse, zebrafish, pig and rat). Its introduction pages have been redesigned to enable the user to easily navigate between whole genomes(More)
1. The cell-attached and excised inside-out configurations of the patch-clamp technique were employed to probe isolated enterocytes of Necturus maculosus for the presence of Cl(-)-selective channels. 2. Chloride-selective channels were rarely observed unless cells were previously stimulated by agonists that raise cyclic AMP. In cell-attached patches(More)
We present a method for optimizing transition state theory dividing surfaces with support vector machines. The resulting dividing surfaces require no a priori information or intuition about reaction mechanisms. To generate optimal dividing surfaces, we apply a cycle of machine-learning and refinement of the surface by molecular dynamics sampling. We(More)