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Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show predominant negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses (NBRs) in regions of the default-mode network such as the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show(More)
BACKGROUND Although recent neuroimaging and therapeutic transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation (TMS) studies suggest imbalance between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) the fundamental neuropsychological characterization of left DLPFC hypoactivity and right DLPFC hyperactivity in MDD remains poorly(More)
We report the 9-year follow-up of a patient suffering from N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, an urea cycle disorder leading to severe neonatal hyperammonaemia. Hitherto two patients from two families with this inborn error of metabolism had been observed. Our management consisted mainly of a protein-restricted diet and oral treatment with(More)
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) often show a tendency to strongly introspect and reflect upon their self, which has been described as increased self-focus. Although subcortical-cortical midline structures have been associated with reflection and introspection of oneself in healthy subjects, the neural correlates of the abnormally increased(More)
The early course of neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia and the impact of treatment on these deficits need to be better specified. A sample of 45 patients with schizophrenia underwent five neuropsychological evaluations from prior to treatment with antipsychotic treatment through a 2-year follow-up period. A comparison sample of 33 matched(More)
Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) was applied in normal subjects to investigate the effect of prefrontal functions like the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WCST) on cerebral hemodynamics. In 20 healthy volunteers, left and right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were insonated. The TOH task(More)
OBJECTIVE The study investigated relationships between rapid cerebral hemodynamic modulation and attentional performance. Based on former results on complex cognitive functioning, a specific association between the first seconds of the hemodynamic response and performance was hypothesized. METHODS Using transcranial Doppler sonography, blood flow(More)
Alexithymia and increased interoceptive awareness have been associated with affective disorders as well as with altered insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated an association between neurotransmitter function and affective disorders as well as personality traits. Here, we first examined the relationship(More)
Studying neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenia is a strategy for investigating clinical and neuropsychological abnormalities at a very early phase of the disease without confounding influences of illness duration and medication effects. We examined the clinical and neuropsychological time course over 2 years in 32 neuroleptic-naive first episode(More)
Patients with first-episode schizophrenia show significant cognitive impairments even at this early phase of their illness. Antipsychotic medication improves clinical symptomatology, but the effectiveness of this treatment on neuropsychological deficits remains unclear. We investigated clinical symptom and neuropsychological performance change in 34(More)