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This study examined the degree to which pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear explain pain, psychological disability, physical disability, and walking speed in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants in this study were 106 individuals diagnosed as having OA of at least one knee, who reported knee pain persisting for six months or(More)
Embryogenesis of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces a juvenile having about 550 cells at hatching. We have determined the lineages of 182 cells by tracing the divisions of individual cells in living embryos. An invariant pattern of cleavage divisions of the egg generates a set of stem cells. These stem cells are the founders of(More)
An understanding of the evolution of human bipedalism can provide valuable insights into the biomechanical and physiological characteristics of locomotion in modern humans. The walking gaits of humans, other bipeds and most quadrupedal mammals can best be described by using an inverted-pendulum model, in which there is minimal change in flexion of the limb(More)
Several features that appear to differentiate the walking gaits of most primates from those of most other mammals (the prevalence of diagonal-sequence footfalls, high degrees of humeral protraction, and low forelimb vs. hindlimb peak vertical forces) are believed to have evolved in response to requirements of locomotion on thin arboreal supports by early(More)
It is often claimed that the walking gaits of primates are unusual because, unlike most other mammals, primates appear to have higher vertical peak ground reaction forces on their hindlimbs than on their forelimbs. Many researchers have argued that this pattern of ground reaction force distribution is part of a general adaptation to arboreal locomotion.(More)
The forelimb joints of terrestrial primate quadrupeds appear better able to resist mediolateral (ML) shear forces than those of arboreal quadrupedal monkeys. These differences in forelimb morphology have been used extensively to infer locomotor behavior in extinct primate quadrupeds. However, the nature of ML substrate reaction forces (SRF) during arboreal(More)
This study examined arthritis self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting eating as predictors of pain, disability, and eating behaviors in overweight or obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients (N=174) with a body mass index between 25 and 42 completed measures of arthritis-related self-efficacy, weight-related self-efficacy, pain,(More)
The locomotion of primates differs from that of other mammals in three fundamental ways. During quadrupedal walking, primates use diagonal sequence gaits, protract their arms more at forelimb touchdown, and experience lower vertical substrate reaction forces on their forelimbs relative to their hindlimbs. It is widely held that the unusual walking gaits of(More)
The human heel pad is considered an important structure for attenuation of the transient force caused by heel-strike. Although the mechanical properties of heel pads are relatively well understood, the mechanical energy (Etot) absorbed by the heel pad during the impact phase has never been documented directly because data on the effective foot mass (Meff)(More)
Analysis of the teeth, orbital, and gnathic regions of the skull, and fragmentary postcranial bones provides evidence for reconstructing a behavioral profile of Amphipithecidae: Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, Myanmarpithecus (late middle Eocene, Myanmar) and Siamopithecus (late Eocene, Thailand). At 5-8 kg, Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, and Siamopithecus are(More)