Learn More
Several features that appear to differentiate the walking gaits of most primates from those of most other mammals (the prevalence of diagonal-sequence footfalls, high degrees of humeral protraction, and low forelimb vs. hindlimb peak vertical forces) are believed to have evolved in response to requirements of locomotion on thin arboreal supports by early(More)
It is often claimed that the walking gaits of primates are unusual because, unlike most other mammals, primates appear to have higher vertical peak ground reaction forces on their hindlimbs than on their forelimbs. Many researchers have argued that this pattern of ground reaction force distribution is part of a general adaptation to arboreal locomotion.(More)
The forelimb joints of terrestrial primate quadrupeds appear better able to resist mediolateral (ML) shear forces than those of arboreal quadrupedal monkeys. These differences in forelimb morphology have been used extensively to infer locomotor behavior in extinct primate quadrupeds. However, the nature of ML substrate reaction forces (SRF) during arboreal(More)
An understanding of the evolution of human bipedalism can provide valuable insights into the biomechanical and physiological characteristics of locomotion in modern humans. The walking gaits of humans, other bipeds and most quadrupedal mammals can best be described by using an inverted-pendulum model, in which there is minimal change in flexion of the limb(More)
The locomotion of primates differs from that of other mammals in three fundamental ways. During quadrupedal walking, primates use diagonal sequence gaits, protract their arms more at forelimb touchdown, and experience lower vertical substrate reaction forces on their forelimbs relative to their hindlimbs. It is widely held that the unusual walking gaits of(More)
At speeds between the walk and the gallop, most mammals trot. Primates almost never trot, and it has been claimed that they transition directly from a walk to a gallop without any distinctive mid-speed running gait. If true, this would be another characteristic difference between the locomotion of primates and that of most other quadrupedal mammals.(More)
Analysis of the teeth, orbital, and gnathic regions of the skull, and fragmentary postcranial bones provides evidence for reconstructing a behavioral profile of Amphipithecidae: Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, Myanmarpithecus (late middle Eocene, Myanmar) and Siamopithecus (late Eocene, Thailand). At 5-8 kg, Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, and Siamopithecus are(More)
The dynamic role of the prehensile tail of atelines during locomotion is poorly understood. While some have viewed the tail of Ateles simply as a safety mechanism, others have suggested that the prehensile tail plays an active role by adjusting pendulum length or controlling lateral sway during bimanual suspensory locomotion. This study examines the bony(More)
The human heel pad is considered an important structure for attenuation of the transient force caused by heel-strike. Although the mechanical properties of heel pads are relatively well understood, the mechanical energy (Etot) absorbed by the heel pad during the impact phase has never been documented directly because data on the effective foot mass (Meff)(More)
Most primates, including lemurs, have a broad range of locomotor capabilities, yet much of the time, they walk at slow speeds and amble, canter or gallop at intermediate and fast speeds. Although numerous studies have investigated limb function during primate quadrupedalism, how the center of mass (COM) moves is not well understood. Here, we examined COM(More)