Daniel Schien

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Interactive devices and the services they support are reliant on the cloud and the digital infrastructure supporting it. The environmental impacts of this infrastructure are substantial and for particular services the infrastructure can account for up to 85% of the total impact. In this paper, we apply the principles of Sustainable Interaction Design to(More)
Estimates of the energy intensity of the Internet diverge by several orders of magnitude. We present existing assessments and identify diverging definitions of the system boundary as the main reason for this large spread. The decision of whether or not to include end devices influences the result by 1-2 orders of magnitude. If end devices are excluded,(More)
Environmental assessments of digital services seeking to take into account the Internet’s energy footprint typically require models of the energy intensity of the Internet. Existing models have arrived at conflicting results. This has lead to increased uncertainty and reduced comparability of assessment results. We present a bottom-up model for the energy(More)
Direct energy consumption of ICT hardware is only “half the story.” In order to get the “whole story,” energy consumption during the entire life cycle has to be taken into account. This chapter is a first step toward a more comprehensive picture, showing the “grey energy” (i.e., the overall energy requirements) as well as the releases (into air, water, and(More)
The use of information and communication technology and the web-based products it provides is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gases. In order to enable the reduction of emissions during the design of such products, it is necessary to estimate as accurately as possible their carbon impact over the entire product system. In this work we(More)
Sustainability research about using Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) to reduce household energy consumption has recently focused on two potential strategies: “smart homes” that rely on sensors and technological innovations to automatically reduce the energy load, and tools that seek to persuade users to change their domestic habits, such(More)
The newly released Orange D4D mobile phone data base provides new insights into the use of mobile technology in a developing country. Here we perform a series of spatial data analyses that reveal important geographic aspects of mobile phone use in Cote d’Ivoire. We first map the locations of base stations with respect to the population distribution and the(More)
Here, we present results of work developed through a partnership between Guardian News and Media (GNM), a London-based content provider, and the University of Bristol that provide insight into the overall energy consumption for a digital service's end-to-end production and delivery. Specifically, we break down how the service's various technical(More)