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Many endoparasitic wasps inject, along with the egg, polydnavirus into their insect hosts, the virus being a prerequisite for successful parasitoid development. The genome of polydnaviruses consists of multiple circular dsDNA molecules of variable size. We show for a 12 kbp segment of the braconid Chelonus inanitus (CiV12) that it is integrated into the(More)
In spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of early childhood death, the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) is deleted or inactivated. The nearly identical SMN2 gene has a silent mutation that impairs the utilization of exon 7 and the production of functional protein. It has been hypothesized that therapies boosting SMN2 exon 7 inclusion(More)
Tricyclo (tc)-DNA belongs to the class of conformationally constrained DNA analogs that show enhanced binding properties to DNA and RNA. We prepared tc-oligonucleotides up to 17 nt in length, and evaluated their binding efficiency and selectivity towards complementary RNA, their biological stability in serum, their RNase H inducing potential and their(More)
Invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT) are a versatile lymphocyte subset with important roles in both host defense and immunological tolerance. They express a highly conserved TCR which mediates recognition of the non-polymorphic, lipid-binding molecule CD1d. The structure of human iNKT TCRs is unique in that only one of the six complementarity determining(More)
Precise frameshift and nonsense mutations were introduced into the region preceding the galactokinase gene (galK) of Escherichia coli. These mutations after the position at which upstream translation terminates relative to the galK translation initiation signal. Constructions were characterized that allow ribosomes to stop selectively before, within or(More)
OBJECTIVES Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which results in motoneuron loss. Therapeutic strategies to increase SMN levels including drug compounds, antisense oligonucleotides, and scAAV9 gene therapy have proved effective in mice. We wished to determine whether reduction of SMN in postnatal(More)
In Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), the SMN1 gene is deleted or inactivated. Because of a splicing problem, the second copy gene, SMN2, generates insufficient amounts of functional SMN protein, leading to the death of spinal cord motoneurons. For a "severe" mouse SMA model (Smn -/-, hSMN2 +/+; with affected pups dying at 5-7 days), which most closely mimicks(More)
We have used the yeast three-hybrid system in a positive selection for mutants of the human histone hairpin-binding protein (HBP) capable of interacting with non-canonical hairpins and in a negative selection for loss-of-binding mutants. Interestingly, all mutations from the positive selection are located in the N- and C-terminal regions flanking a minimal(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) multiplication depends on a cellular protein, cyclophilin A (CyPA), that gets integrated into viral particles. Because CyPA is not required for cell viability, we attempted to block its synthesis in order to inhibit HIV-1 replication. For this purpose, we used antisense U7 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that disturb CyPA(More)