Daniel Sauter

Learn More
Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication. We show that Vpus from SIVgsn, SIVmus, and SIVmon infecting Cercopithecus primate species also degrade CD4 and antagonize tetherin. In contrast, SIVcpz, the immediate precursor of HIV-1, whose Vpu shares a common(More)
SAMHD1 has recently been identified as an HIV-1 restriction factor operating in myeloid cells. As a countermeasure, the Vpx accessory protein from HIV-2 and certain lineages of SIV have evolved to antagonize SAMHD1 by inducing its ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation. Here, we show that SAMHD1 experienced strong positive selection episodes during(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release. It has been suggested that both functions can be genetically separated by mutation of a serine residue at position 52. However, recent data suggest that the S52 phosphorylation site is also(More)
Aldosterone controls the final sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in the kidney by regulating the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). ASDN consists of the last portion of the distal convoluted tubule (late DCT), the connecting tubule (CNT), and the collecting duct (CD) (i.e., the(More)
CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an(More)
A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to the human(More)
Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by(More)
Known antiretroviral restriction factors are encoded by genes that are under positive selection pressure, induced during HIV-1 infection, up-regulated by interferons, and/or interact with viral proteins. To identify potential novel restriction factors, we performed genome-wide scans for human genes sharing molecular and evolutionary signatures of known(More)
Inefficient gene transfer and low virion concentrations are common limitations of retroviral transduction. We and others have previously shown that peptides derived from human semen form amyloid fibrils that boost retroviral gene delivery by promoting virion attachment to the target cells. However, application of these natural fibril-forming peptides is(More)
Tetherin (or BST-2) is an antiviral host restriction factor that suppresses the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering them to the cell surface. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tetherin also acts as an innate sensor of HIV-1 assembly that induces NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory responses. Furthermore, it has been reported that(More)