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BACKGROUND A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to(More)
Tetherin (or BST-2) is an antiviral host restriction factor that suppresses the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering them to the cell surface. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tetherin also acts as an innate sensor of HIV-1 assembly that induces NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory responses. Furthermore, it has been reported that(More)
The interferon-inducible restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) has emerged as a key component of the antiviral immune response. Initially, tetherin was shown to restrict replication of various enveloped viruses by inhibiting the release of budding virions from infected cells. More recently, it has become clear that tetherin also(More)
BACKGROUND The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release. It has been suggested that both functions can be genetically separated by mutation of a serine residue at position 52. However, recent data suggest that the S52 phosphorylation(More)
HIV-1 groups M and N emerged within the last century following two independent cross-species transmissions of SIVcpz from chimpanzees to humans. In contrast to pandemic group M strains, HIV-1 group N viruses are exceedingly rare, with only about a dozen infections identified, all but one in individuals from Cameroon. Poor adaptation to the human host may be(More)
The activity of the epithelial sodium (Na(+)) channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) needs to be tightly regulated to match urinary Na(+) excretion with dietary Na(+) intake. The ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4-2, which in vitro interacts with ENaC subunits and reduces ENaC cell surface abundance and activity by ubiquitylation of(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. ANO1 (TMEM16A) is a recently identified Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CaCC) that is upregulated in several tumors. Although ANO1 was subject to extensive studies in the recent years, its pathophysiological function has only been poorly understood. The aim of the(More)
Members of the TMEM16 family have recently been described as Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. They have been implicated in cancer and appear to be associated with poor patient prognosis. Here, we investigate the role of TMEM16 channels in cell migration, which is largely unknown. We focused on TMEM16A and TMEM16F channels that have the highest expression of(More)
Nef is an accessory protein critical for the ability of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) to replicate efficiently in their respective hosts. Previous analyses of members of 15 different primate lentivirus lineages revealed a link between Nef function and the presence of a vpu gene. In particular, Nef proteins of all vpu-containing(More)