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BACKGROUND Cortisol is frequently used as a marker of physiologic stress levels. Using cortisol for that purpose, however, requires a thorough understanding of its normal longitudinal variability. The current understanding of longitudinal variability of basal cortisol secretion in women is very limited. It is often assumed, for example, that basal cortisol(More)
The current experiment suggests that the speed/accuracy tradeoff is composed of two classes of constraints, effector and task. We examined the effects of movement distance, target size, orientation of the movement in the workspace, and C-D gain on the kinematics of discrete pointing movements made with computer mouse. It was found that target size(More)
We investigated whether forward or side-to-side head movements yielded more accurate and precise monocular egocentric distance information, as shown by performance in a reaching task. Observers wore a head-mounted camera and display to isolate the optic flow generated by their head movements and had to reach to align a stylus directly under a target(More)
Spatial metrics are lost but temporal metrics are preserved in the mapping from events to optic flow. In inanimate events governed by gravity, temporal scale is linked to spatial scale in ways specific to particular events. We tested whether time can be used as information about spatial scale in visually recognizable events. On average, observers were able(More)
BACKGROUND Secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) enzymes, produced and secreted in human blood vessels and hepatocytes, contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of lipoprotein. We examined the effects of an sPLA(2) inhibitor on enzyme concentration and on plasma lipoproteins and(More)
Modern tools often separate the visual and physical aspects of operation, requiring users to manipulate an instrument while viewing the results indirectly on a display. This can pose usability challenges particularly in applications, such as laparoscopic surgery, that require a high degree of movement precision. Magnification used to augment the view and,(More)
An empirical study was carried out comparing three kinds of hands-on practice in training users of a software package; exercises, guided-exploration, and a combination of exercises and guided-exploration. Moderate to high experience computer users were trained. Subjects who were trained with exercises or the combined approach did significantly better in(More)
This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age=81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical Memory (LM),(More)
The present study resolves some of the discrepancies in the literature by correlating the effects of tobacco smoking on hormone release with venous plasma nicotine levels. Cortisol, prolactin, and beta-endorphin concentrations were measured. Habitual male tobacco users smoked denicotinized (very low nicotine) and average nicotine cigarettes in the morning(More)
Jacobs and Michaels (2001) have argued that increased precision in judgments of the viewing distance to a perceived event should be attributed in part to perceptual learning. They found that observers used feedback to attune to the appropriate information variables gradually. McConnell, Muchisky, and Bingham (1998) had found that observers used feedback to(More)