Daniel S. Kessler

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Spemann's organizer develops in response to dorsal determinants that act via maternal components of the wnt pathway. The function of siamois, a wnt-inducible homeobox gene, in Spemann's organizer development was examined by fusion of defined transcriptional regulatory domains to the siamois homeodomain. Similar to native siamois, a VP16 activator fusion(More)
The signaling activities of multiple developmental ligands require sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans as coreceptors. QSulf1 and its mammalian orthologs are cell surface HS 6-O-endosulfatases that are expressed in embryonic mesodermal and neural progenitors and promote Wnt signal transduction. In this study, we have investigated the function of(More)
The signal transduction pathway through which interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) stimulates transcription of a defined set of genes involves activation of DNA-binding factors specific for the IFN alpha-stimulated response element (ISRE). IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF3), the positive regulator of transcription, was derived in response to IFN alpha treatment(More)
We have analyzed two gene products expressed in the early endoderm of Xenopus laevis: Xlhbox-8, a pancreas-specific transcription factor and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), a marker of small intestinal epithelium. Expression of the pancreas marker relies on cell signaling mediated by both the TGF-β and FGF classes of secreted peptide growth(More)
Interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) each induce in susceptible target cells a state of resistance to viral replication and reduced cellular proliferation, presumably through different mechanisms: these two polypeptides are unrelated by primary sequence and act through distinct cell-surface receptors to induce expression of largely(More)
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method for analyzing the interaction of regulatory proteins with genomic loci, but has been difficult to apply to studies on early embryos due to the limiting amount of genomic material in these samples. Here, we present a comprehensive technique for performing ChIP on blastula and gastrula stage Xenopus(More)
Interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) is the ligand-dependent transcriptional activator that, in response to interferon treatment, is assembled in the cell cytoplasm, is translocated to the nucleus, and binds the consensus DNA site, the interferon-stimulated response element. We have purified ISGF3 and identified its constituent proteins: a(More)
Nuclear proteins induced by interferon (IFN) treatment of human cells are capable of forming two specific complexes with DNA fragments containing the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE). These two complexes, designated B2 and B3, are distinguished by differential migration in gel retardation assays. The factor that forms the B3 complex, termed(More)
The mesencephalic and metencephalic region (MMR) of the vertebrate central nervous system develops in response to signals produced by the isthmic organizer (IsO). We have previously reported that the LIM homeobox transcription factor Lmx1b is expressed within the chick IsO, where it is sufficient to maintain expression of the secreted factor wnt1. In this(More)
Human alpha- and beta-interferons (IFNs) stimulate rapid but transient increases in transcription from a set of previously quiescent genes. Protein synthesis is not required for initial stimulation, but duration of the response is limited to a few hours by a process requiring synthesis of new proteins. An IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was(More)