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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces formation of a membranous web structure in the host cell cytoplasm where the viral genome replicates and virions assemble. The membranous web is thought to concentrate viral components and hide viral RNA from pattern recognition receptors. We have uncovered a role for nuclear pore complex proteins (Nups) and nuclear(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES) have been identified in HCV proteins, however, there is little evidence that these proteins travel into the nucleus during(More)
TASK channels are acid-sensitive and anesthetic-activated members of the family of two-pore-domain potassium channels. We have made the surprising discovery that the genetic ablation of TASK-3 channels eliminates a specific type of theta oscillation in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) resembling type II theta (4-9 Hz), which is thought to be(More)
Our limited ability to assess spontaneous pain in rodent models of painful human conditions may be associated with a translational failure of promising analgesic compounds in to clinical use. If measurement of spontaneous pain behaviours can be used to generate an analgesic intervention score their use could expand to guide the use of analgesics, as(More)
BACKGROUND The assessment of facial expressions associated with pain has been used to evaluate pain in humans and has recently found application in non-human mammals. These so called 'grimace scales' have the potential to be developed into a widely accepted non-invasive method of measuring pain in laboratory rodents. Currently, common methodologies to(More)
The aims of this study were to determine if the learning curve cumulative summation test (LC-CUSUM) can differentiate proficiency in placing intravenous catheters by novice learners, and identify the cause of failure when it occurred. In a prospective, observational study design 6 undergraduate students with no previous experience of placing intravenous(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical audit is a quality improvement process with the goal of continuously improving quality of patient care as assessed by explicit criteria. In human medicine clinical audit has become an integral and required component of the standard of care. In contrast, in veterinary medicine there appear to have been a limited number of clinical audits(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a killing method is aversive and exposure to high concentrations is likely to be painful. Bradycardia during exposure to CO2 is associated with nociception and pain. However, it is unclear if bradycardia occurs before loss of consciousness as definitions of loss of consciousness vary in the literature. The(More)
Gradual filling of a chamber with carbon dioxide is currently listed by the Canadian Council on Animal Care guidelines as a conditionally acceptable method of euthanasia for rats. Behavioural evidence suggests, however, that exposure to carbon dioxide gas is aversive. Isoflurane is less aversive than carbon dioxide and may be a viable alternative, though(More)
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