Daniel S. Fisher

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When beneficial mutations are rare, they accumulate by a series of selective sweeps. But when they are common, many beneficial mutations will occur before any can fix, so there will be many different mutant lineages in the population concurrently. In an asexual population, these different mutant lineages interfere and not all can fix simultaneously. In(More)
The simple circadian oscillator found in cyanobacteria can be reconstituted in vitro using three proteins-KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The total phosphorylation level of KaiC oscillates with a circadian period, but the mechanism underlying its sustained oscillation remains unclear. We have shown that four forms of KaiC differing in their phosphorylation state(More)
BACKGROUND The rate at which beneficial mutations accumulate determines how fast asexual populations evolve, but this is only partially understood. Some recent clonal-interference models suggest that evolution in large asexual populations is limited because smaller beneficial mutations are outcompeted by larger beneficial mutations that occur in different(More)
Despite tremendous progress in understanding the nature of the immune system, the full diversity of an organism's antibody repertoire is unknown. We used high-throughput sequencing of the variable domain of the antibody heavy chain from 14 zebrafish to analyze VDJ usage and antibody sequence. Zebrafish were found to use between 50 and 86% of all possible(More)
Complex traits often involve interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, whereby mutations that are individually deleterious or neutral combine to confer a fitness benefit. In order to acquire the beneficial genotype, an asexual population must cross a fitness valley or plateau by first acquiring the deleterious or neutral(More)
Anastral meiotic spindles are thought to be organized differently from astral mitotic spindles, but the field lacks the basic structural information required to describe and model them, including the location of microtubule-nucleating sites and minus ends. We measured the distributions of oriented microtubules in metaphase anastral spindles in Xenopus(More)
<lb>In large asexual populations, multiple beneficial mutations arise in the population,<lb>compete, interfere with each other, and accumulate on the same genome, before any<lb>of them fix. The resulting dynamics, although studied by many authors, is still not<lb>fully understood, fundamentally because the effects of fluctuations due to the small<lb>numbers(More)
BACKGROUND Mitotic and meiotic spindles are assemblies of microtubules (MTs) that form during cell division to physically separate sister chromosomes. How the various components of spindles act together to establish and maintain the dynamic bipolar structure of spindles is not understood. Interactions between MTs and motors have been studied both(More)
Mutator alleles, which elevate an individual's mutation rate from 10 to 10,000-fold, have been found at high frequencies in many natural and experimental populations. Mutators are continually produced from nonmutators, often due to mutations in mismatch-repair genes. These mutators gradually accumulate deleterious mutations, limiting their spread. However,(More)