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We examine the scaling law B is proportional to M(alpha)which connects organismal resting metabolic rate B with organismal mass M, where alpha is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests alpha = 2/3, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyse data sets for mammals and birds compiled by(More)
The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction(More)
Carbon removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis is released back by respiration. Although some organic carbon is degraded quickly, older carbon persists; consequently carbon stocks are much larger than predicted by initial decomposition rates. This disparity can be traced to a wide range of first-order decay-rate constants, but the rate distributions(More)
One proposed growth law for channel development suggests that the velocity at which channel heads advance is proportional to the flux of groundwater to the heads 17. Here we use field observations and physical theory to show that this simple model, combined with a second linear response that relates channel branching to the total groundwater flux to the(More)
[1] We propose a dynamical model for channels incised into an erodible bed by subsurface water flow. The model is validated by the time-resolved topographic measurements of channel growth in a laboratory-scale experiment. Surface heights in the experiment are measured via a novel laser-aided imaging technique. The erosion rate in the model is composed of(More)
In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses(More)
Momentum-conserving lattice gases are simple, discrete, microscopic models of Auids. This review describes their hydrodynamics, with particular attention given to the derivation of macroscopic constitutive equations from microscopic dynamics. Lattice-gas models of phase separation receive special emphasis. The current understanding of phase transitions in(More)
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive(More)
Degradation of marine organic carbon provides a major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide, whereas preservation in sediments results in accumulation of oxygen. These processes involve the slow decay of chemically recalcitrant compounds and physical protection. To assess the importance of physical protection, we constructed a reaction-diffusion model in(More)
[1] We study channelization and slope destabilization driven by subsurface (groundwater) flow in a laboratory experiment. The pressure of the water entering the sand pile from below as well as the slope of the sand pile are varied. We present quantitative understanding of the three modes of sediment mobilization in this experiment: surface erosion,(More)