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Factor H (FH) is an abundant regulator of complement activation and protects host cells from self-attack by complement. Here we provide insight into the regulatory activity of FH by solving the crystal structure of the first four domains of FH in complex with its target, complement fragment C3b. FH interacted with multiple domains of C3b, covering a large,(More)
Although acute or chronic inflammation is a common component of many clinical disorders, the underlying processes can be highly distinct. In recent years, the complement system has been associated with a growing number of immunological and inflammatory conditions that include degenerative diseases, cancer, and transplant rejection. It becomes evident that(More)
With the awareness that immune-inflammatory cross-talk is at the heart of many disorders, the desire for novel immunomodulatory strategies in the therapy of such diseases has grown dramatically. As a prime initiator and important modulator of immunological and inflammatory processes, the complement system has emerged as an attractive target for early and(More)
The parallel expression of activation products of the coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement systems has long been observed in both clinical and experimental settings. Several interconnections between the individual components of these cascades have also been described, and the list of shared regulators is expanding. The co-existence and interplay of(More)
Activation of the complement system generates potent chemoattractants and opsonizes cells for immune clearance. Short-lived protease complexes cleave complement component C3 into anaphylatoxin C3a and opsonin C3b. Here we report the crystal structure of the C3 convertase formed by C3b and the protease fragment Bb, which was stabilized by the bacterial(More)
Activation of the complement cascade induces inflammatory responses and marks cells for immune clearance. In the central complement-amplification step, a complex consisting of surface-bound C3b and factor B is cleaved by factor D to generate active convertases on targeted surfaces. We present crystal structures of the pro-convertase C3bB at 4 angstrom(More)
Staphylococcus aureus possesses an impressive arsenal of complement evasion proteins that help the bacterium escape attack of the immune system. The staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) protein exhibits a particularly high potency and was previously shown to block complement by acting at the level of the C3 convertases. However, many details about the(More)
Staphylococcus aureus expresses a highly diversified arsenal of immune evasion proteins, many of which target the complement system. The extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the Efb homologous protein (Ehp) have previously been demonstrated to bind to C3 and inhibit complement activation and amplification. In this study we present the first(More)
When excessively activated or deregulated, complement becomes a major link between infection and inflammatory pathology including periodontitis. This oral inflammatory disease is associated with a dysbiotic microbiota, leads to the destruction of bone and other tooth-supporting structures, and exerts an adverse impact on systemic health. We have previously(More)
Inadequate control of the complement system is the underlying or aggravating factor in many human diseases. Whereas treatment options that specifically target the alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation are considered highly desirable, no such option is available in the clinic. In this study, we present a successful example of protein engineering,(More)