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This report of independent genome sequences of two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster (37 from North America and 6 from Africa) provides unique insight into forces shaping genomic polymorphism and divergence. Evidence of interactions between natural selection and genetic linkage is abundant not only in centromere- and telomere-proximal regions,(More)
Because spontaneous mutation is the source of all genetic diversity, measuring mutation rates can reveal how natural selection drives patterns of variation within and between species. We sequenced eight genomes produced by a mutation-accumulation experiment in Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals that point mutation and small indel rates vary(More)
Many aspects of mutational processes are nonrandom, from the preponderance of transitions relative to transversions to the higher rate of mutation at CpG dinucleotides [1]. However, it is still often assumed that single-nucleotide mutations are independent of one another, each being caused by separate mutational events. The occurrence of multiple, closely(More)
'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution.(More)
Characterizing the nature of the adaptive process at the genetic level is a central goal for population genetics. In particular, we know little about the sources of adaptive substitution or about the number of adaptive variants currently segregating in nature. Historically, population geneticists have focused attention on the hard-sweep model of adaptation(More)
of Chimerism Analysis Data. a. Simulated distributions of the proportion of allele A reads out of the total number of reads at a locus for a marmoset with chimeric fraction Φ BLOCKIN BLOCKIN = 0.33 (green) and BLOCKIN BLOCKIN Φ BLOCKIN BLOCKIN = 0 (i.e., not chimeric; yellow). b. Standard deviation in the proportion of allele A reads across loci vs.(More)
Differences between individuals in the copy-number of whole genes have been found in every multicellular species examined thus far. Such differences result in unique complements of protein-coding genes in all individuals, and have been shown to underlie adaptive phenotypic differences. Here, we review the evidence for copy-number variants (CNVs), focusing(More)
Current sequencing methods produce large amounts of data, but genome assemblies based on these data are often woefully incomplete. These incomplete and error-filled assemblies result in many annotation errors, especially in the number of genes present in a genome. In this paper we investigate the magnitude of the problem, both in terms of total gene number(More)
RNA editing is an important cellular process by which the nucleotides in a mature RNA transcript are altered to cause them to differ from the corresponding DNA sequence. While this process yields essential transcripts in humans and other organisms, it is believed to occur at a relatively small number of loci. The rarity of RNA editing has been challenged by(More)
Gene duplication via retrotransposition has been shown to be an important mechanism in evolution, affecting gene dosage and allowing for the acquisition of new gene functions. Although fixed retrotransposed genes have been found in a variety of species, very little effort has been made to identify retrogene polymorphisms. Here, we examine 37(More)