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What determines invasiveness of alien organisms is among the most interesting and urgent questions in ecology. In attempts to answer this question, researchers compare invasive alien species either to native species or to non-invasive alien species, and this is done in either the introduced or native ranges. However, inferences that can be drawn from these(More)
Nearly all current imaging spectroscopy data are obtained by scanning airborne systems. The stability of such systems is always worse than that of spaceborne platforms. Thus, geometric distortions occur due to variations of the flightpath as well as of the attitude (given by roll, pitch and heading angles) of the plane. These distortions cannot be corrected(More)
*To understand prerequisites of biological invasions, it is imperative to know whether species have traits that pre-adapt them to become invasive elsewhere. However, few experimental studies have explicitly tested this by comparing traits between invasive and noninvasive species in their native range instead of in the nonnative range. *We used native plant(More)
The MODTRAN radiative transfer code is a well established standard for simulating the at sensor radiance for optical instruments and imaging spectrometers from the UV to the thermal infrared. However, its efficient use is a task not easily accomplished. This situation has led to various developments for improving the efficiency as well as for the inversion(More)
The derivation of radiometric specifications for imaging spectrometers from the visible to the short-wave infrared part of the spectrum is a task based on the requirements of potential scientific applications. A method for modeling the noise equivalent radiance at-sensor level is proposed. The model starts with surface reflectance signatures, transforms(More)
We present an approach to translate scientific requirements into instrument specifications by using a forward model for generic airborne imaging spectrometers in earth remote sensing. Based on scientific requirements, for each relevant variable detectable using imaging spectroscopy, ground reflectance spectra have been provided by specialists in their field(More)
An operational orthorectification solution in support of the combined geometric and radiometric processing of currently available imaging spectrometry data is presented. The described parametric geocoding procedure (PARGE) strictly considers the aircraft and terrain geometry parameters and uses a forward transformation algorithm to create orthorectified(More)
The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging(More)