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Plants use light to optimize growth and development. The photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) mediates various far-red light-induced responses. We show that Arabidopsis FHY3 and FAR1, which encode two proteins related to Mutator-like transposases, act together to modulate phyA signaling by directly activating the transcription of FHY1 and FHL, whose products(More)
Progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a late-onset, autosomal recessive photoreceptor degeneration of dogs and a homolog for some forms of human retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Previously, the disease-relevant interval was reduced to a 106-kb region on CFA9, and a common phenotype-specific haplotype was identified in all affected dogs from several(More)
Global optimization is playing an increasing role in physics, chemistry, and biophysical chemistry. One of the most important applications of global optimization is to find the global minima of the potential energy of molecules or molecular assemblies, such as crystals. The solution of this problem typically requires huge computational effort. Even the(More)
Recent improvements of a hierarchical ab initio or de novo approach for predicting both alpha and beta structures of proteins are described. The united-residue energy function used in this procedure includes multibody interactions from a cumulant expansion of the free energy of polypeptide chains, with their relative weights determined by Z-score(More)
An approach based exclusively on finding the global minimum of an appropriate potential energy function has been used to predict the unknown structures of five globular proteins with sizes ranging from 89 to 140 amino acid residues. Comparison of the computed lowest-energy structures of two of them (HDEA and MarA) with the crystal structures, released by(More)
Recent improvements in the protein-structure prediction method developed in our laboratory, based on the thermodynamic hypothesis, are described. The conformational space is searched extensively at the united-residue level by using our physics-based UNRES energy function and the conformational space annealing method of global optimization. The lowest-energy(More)
An efficient method has been developed for packing alpha-helices in proteins. It treats alpha-helices as rigid bodies and uses a simplified Lennard-Jones potential with Miyazawa-Jernigan contact-energy parameters to describe the interactions between the alpha-helical elements in this coarse-grained system. Global conformational searches to generate packing(More)
BACKGROUND Fungal mating types in self-incompatible Pezizomycotina are specified by one of two alternate sequences occupying the same locus on corresponding chromosomes. One sequence is characterized by a gene encoding an HMG protein, while the hallmark of the other is a gene encoding a protein with an α1 domain showing similarity to the Matα1p protein of(More)
BACKGROUND Most filamentous ascomycete fungi produce high affinity iron chelators called siderophores, biosynthesized nonribosomally by multimodular adenylating enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). While genes encoding the majority of NRPSs are intermittently distributed across the fungal kingdom, those encoding ferrichrome synthetase(More)
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase generates a strong electrostatic field that can attract the cationic substrate acetylcholine to the active site. However, the long and narrow active site gorge seems inconsistent with the enzyme's high catalytic rate. A molecular dynamics simulation of acetylcholinesterase in water reveals the transient opening of a short(More)