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Plants use light to optimize growth and development. The photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) mediates various far-red light-induced responses. We show that Arabidopsis FHY3 and FAR1, which encode two proteins related to Mutator-like transposases, act together to modulate phyA signaling by directly activating the transcription of FHY1 and FHL, whose products(More)
Tetradecameric Clp protease core complexes in non-photosynthetic plastids of roots, flower petals, and in chloroplasts of leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were purified based on native mass and isoelectric point and identified by mass spectrometry. The stoichiometry between the subunits was determined. The protease complex consisted of one to three copies of(More)
The constituents of seminal fluid are a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules, most of whose functions have yet to be determined and many of which are rapidly evolving. As a step in elucidating the roles of these proteins and exposing potential functional similarities hidden by their rapid evolution, we performed comparative structural modeling on(More)
A critical structural feature of many microbial endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases, or cellulases) is a carbohydrate binding module (CBM), which is required for effective crystalline cellulose degradation. However, CBMs are absent from plant EGases that have been biochemically characterized to date, and accordingly, plant EGases are not generally thought to(More)
BACKGROUND Fungal mating types in self-incompatible Pezizomycotina are specified by one of two alternate sequences occupying the same locus on corresponding chromosomes. One sequence is characterized by a gene encoding an HMG protein, while the hallmark of the other is a gene encoding a protein with an α1 domain showing similarity to the Matα1p protein of(More)
The structure of the 36 residue villin headpiece subdomain is investigated with the electrostatically driven Monte Carlo method. The ECEPP/3 (Empirical Conformational Energy Program for Peptides) force field, plus two different continuum solvation models, were used to describe the conformational energy of the chain with both blocked and unblocked N and C(More)
Self-incompatibility in crucifers is effected by allele-specific interactions between the highly polymorphic stigmatic S locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its pollen ligand, the S locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Here we show that specificity in SCR function is determined by four contiguous amino acids in one variant, indicating that the minimum sequence(More)
Electrostatic calculations based on the recently solved crystal structure of acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) indicate that this enzyme has a strong electrostatic dipole. The dipole is aligned with the gorge leading to its active site, so that a positively charged substrate will be drawn to the active site by its(More)
An approach based exclusively on finding the global minimum of an appropriate potential energy function has been used to predict the unknown structures of five globular proteins with sizes ranging from 89 to 140 amino acid residues. Comparison of the computed lowest-energy structures of two of them (HDEA and MarA) with the crystal structures, released by(More)
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase generates a strong electrostatic field that can attract the cationic substrate acetylcholine to the active site. However, the long and narrow active site gorge seems inconsistent with the enzyme's high catalytic rate. A molecular dynamics simulation of acetylcholinesterase in water reveals the transient opening of a short(More)