Daniel R. P. Sauter

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BACKGROUND A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to(More)
Tetherin (or BST-2) is an antiviral host restriction factor that suppresses the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering them to the cell surface. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tetherin also acts as an innate sensor of HIV-1 assembly that induces NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory responses. Furthermore, it has been reported that(More)
The interferon-inducible restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) has emerged as a key component of the antiviral immune response. Initially, tetherin was shown to restrict replication of various enveloped viruses by inhibiting the release of budding virions from infected cells. More recently, it has become clear that tetherin also(More)
HIV-1 groups M and N emerged within the last century following two independent cross-species transmissions of SIVcpz from chimpanzees to humans. In contrast to pandemic group M strains, HIV-1 group N viruses are exceedingly rare, with only about a dozen infections identified, all but one in individuals from Cameroon. Poor adaptation to the human host may be(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. ANO1 (TMEM16A) is a recently identified Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CaCC) that is upregulated in several tumors. Although ANO1 was subject to extensive studies in the recent years, its pathophysiological function has only been poorly understood. The aim of the(More)
Members of the TMEM16 family have recently been described as Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. They have been implicated in cancer and appear to be associated with poor patient prognosis. Here, we investigate the role of TMEM16 channels in cell migration, which is largely unknown. We focused on TMEM16A and TMEM16F channels that have the highest expression of(More)
NF-κB is essential for effective transcription of primate lentiviral genomes and also activates antiviral host genes. Here, we show that the early protein Nef of most primate lentiviruses enhances NF-κB activation. In contrast, the late protein Vpu of HIV-1 and its simian precursors inhibits activation of NF-κB, even in the presence of Nef. Although this(More)
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu is emerging as a critical factor for viral evasion from innate immunity. We have previously shown that the Vpu proteins of two HIV-1 group M subtype B strains (NL4-3 and BaL) down-regulate CD1d from the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) and inhibit their crosstalk with the innate invariant natural killer T (iNKT)(More)
Known antiretroviral restriction factors are encoded by genes that are under positive selection pressure, induced during HIV-1 infection, up-regulated by interferons, and/or interact with viral proteins. To identify potential novel restriction factors, we performed genome-wide scans for human genes sharing molecular and evolutionary signatures of known(More)