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During sleep, under anesthesia and in vitro, cortical neurons in sensory, motor, association and executive areas fluctuate between Up and Down states (UDS) characterized by distinct membrane potentials and spike rates [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Another phenomenon observed in preparations similar to those that exhibit UDS, such as anesthetized rats [6], brain slices(More)
In Experiment 1, frequency-discrimination thresholds were estimated in a 2-interval, forced-choice, backward masking procedure with a masker acoustically dissimilar to the targets. Young subjects were more efficient in escaping the effects of masking than were their elderly counterparts. In Experiment 2, young and elderly subjects performed the same task,(More)
Endocannabinoids are widely regarded as negative modulators of presynaptic release. Here, we present evidence that in visual cortex endocannabinoids are crucial for the maturation of GABAergic release. We found that between eye opening and puberty, release changes from an immature state with high release probability, short-term depression (STD), and high(More)
We investigated age-related differences in the time course of two-tone frequency discrimination. Healthy young and elderly adults with normal hearing acuity in the 500-2000 Hz range performed a two-alternative forced choice frequency discrimination task. The stimuli were short tones separated by either a 250-ms (short), 850-ms (medium), or 3000-ms (long)(More)
Learning novel sequences constitutes an example of declarative memory formation, involving conscious recall of temporal events. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over(More)
During sleep, under anesthesia and in vitro, cortical neurons in sensory, motor, association and executive areas fluctuate between Up and Down states (UDS) characterized by distinct membrane potentials and spike rates [1,2,3,4,5]. Another phenomenon observed in preparations similar to those that exhibit UDS, such as anesthetized rats [6], brain slices and(More)
Title: Temporal theta oscillation enhancement predicts successful memory encoding Abstract Rationale Theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) in the hippocampus and the neocortex have been suggested to play a role in the encoding of new memories and long-term plasticity. Intracranial electrode field potential recordings provide high temporal and spatial resolution for(More)
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