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BACKGROUND LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx… (More)
In birds, the primordial germ cell (PGC) lineage separates from the soma within 24 h following fertilization. Here we show that the endogenous population of about 200 PGCs from a single chicken embryo can be expanded one million fold in culture. When cultured PGCs are injected into a xenogeneic embryo at an equivalent stage of development, they colonize the… (More)
Deep sequencing of immunoglobulin repertoires in multiple sclerosis patients reveals dysregulation of peripheral B cell immunity (Palanichamy et al. and Stern et al., this issue).
OBJECTIVE A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the production of autoantibodies, including anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Nevertheless, the specific targets of these autoantibodies remain incompletely defined. During an immune response, B cells specific for the inciting antigen(s) are activated and differentiate into plasmablasts,… (More)
Valosin-containing protein (VCP), or p97, is a member of the ATP-binding protein family, and is involved in numerous cellular events, such as, protein degradation, membrane fusion, and chaperone activity. VCP has been demonstrated playing a critical role in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis and progression recently. We investigated the… (More)
Organic acidemia is found in several metabolic encephalopathies (e.g., hepatic and valproate encephalopathies, Reye's syndrome, and hereditary organic acidemias). Although fatty acids are known to be neurotoxic, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. It has been hypothesized that one mechanism underlying fatty acid neurotoxicity is the… (More)
Study on ultraviolet-screening effect of extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells. M. A. Shibata et al., alpha-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and… (More)