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l-Serine is required for the synthesis of glycine and d-serine, both of which are NMDA receptor co-agonists. Although roles for d-serine and glycine have been suggested in schizophrenia, little is known about the role of the l-serine synthesizing cascade in schizophrenia or related psychiatric conditions. Here we report a patient with schizophrenia carrying(More)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I could not finish this work without the help of many people. First of all, I would like to thank my advisor, Professor Jeffrey A. Fessler, for his careful guidance, constant encouragement, and the maximum freedom he gave me for developing independent thinking and research skills. Unlike most of my colleagues, I knew nothing about medical(More)
Astrocytes respond to all forms of CNS insult and disease by becoming reactive, a nonspecific but highly characteristic response that involves various morphological and molecular changes. Probably the most recognized aspect of reactive astrocytes is the formation of a glial scar that impedes axon regeneration. Although the reactive phenotype was first(More)
Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the retina and other parts of the central nervous system, exerting its influence through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. One ionotropic receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor, is central to neural shaping, but also plays a major role during neuronal development and in disease processes. We studied(More)
We evaluated the shapes, numbers, and spatial distribution of astrocytes within the glial lamina, an astrocyte-rich region at the junction of the retina and optic nerve. A primary aim was to determine how the population of astrocytes, collectively, partitions the axonal space in this region. Astrocyte processes labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein(More)
Reactive astrocytes are a pathological hallmark of many CNS injuries and neurodegenerations. They are characterized by hypertrophy of the soma and processes and an increase in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Because the cells obscure each other in immunostaining, little is known about the behavior of a single reactive astrocyte, nor how(More)
PURPOSE To establish the morphologic changes of astrocytes in the glial lamina of glaucomatous mice. METHODS A strain of mice that expresses GFP in individual astrocytes (hGFAPpr-GFP) was crossed into the DBA/2J strain that develops glaucoma. In the resulting strain (D2.hGFAPpr-GFP) we assessed the severity of glaucoma by staining the retina for(More)
We quantitatively tracked the recovery in amino acid labeling and cation channel functionality within distinct retinal elements for up to 2 weeks after an ischemic insult. Pattern recognition analysis of multiple amino acid and agmatine (a cation channel probe; 1-amino-4-guanidobutane; AGB) immunocytochemical patterns was used to classify all neural(More)
Fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) and gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) are used as adjuvant therapies to surgical resection for functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas, although their optimum role in the treatment algorithm, as well as long-term safety and efficacy, still awaits further study. We report a single center experience with 33(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses of neurons from within the inner rabbit retina were mapped using a channel permeable cation, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane (agmatine, AGB). Serial sections were subsequently probed with immunoglobulins targeting AGB, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine to visualize the NMDA responses of neurochemical(More)