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Sex chromosomes are primary determinants of sexual dimorphism in many organisms. These chromosomes are thought to arise via the divergence of an ancestral autosome pair and are almost certainly influenced by differing selection in males and females. Exploring how sex chromosomes differ from autosomes is highly amenable to genomic analysis. We examined(More)
MOTIVATION Various studies have shown that cancer tissue samples can be successfully detected and classified by their gene expression patterns using machine learning approaches. One of the challenges in applying these techniques for classifying gene expression data is to extract accurate, readily interpretable rules providing biological insight as to how(More)
Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(More)
Nationally representative data on urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and its metabolites in the United States from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes. In addition, NHANES data on potential sources of BPA exposure and personal characteristics were explored for their association(More)
It has been difficult to determine how cognitive systems change over the grand time scale of an entire life, as few cognitive systems are well enough understood; observable in infants, adolescents, and adults; and simple enough to measure to empower comparisons across vastly different ages. Here we address this challenge with data from more than 10,000(More)
Genome-wide association (GWA) can elucidate molecular genetic bases for human individual differences in complex phenotypes that include vulnerability to addiction. Here, we review (a) evidence that supports polygenic models with (at least) modest heterogeneity for the genetic architectures of addiction and several related phenotypes; (b) technical and(More)
We present a new approach to molecular classification based on mRNA comparisons. Our method, referred to as the top-scoring pair(s) (TSP) classifier, is motivated by current technical and practical limitations in using gene expression microarray data for class prediction, for example to detect disease, identify tumors or predict treatment response. Accurate(More)
Strong genetic contributions to drug abuse vulnerability are well documented, but few chromosomal locations for human drug-abuse vulnerability alleles have been confirmed. We now identify chromosomal markers whose alleles distinguish drug abusers from control individuals in each of two samples, on the basis of pooled-sample microarray and association(More)
S We propose a novel approach to estimating the mean difference between two highly skewed distributions. The method, which we call smooth quantile ratio estimation, smooths, over percentiles, the ratio of the quantiles of the two distributions. The method defines a large class of estimators, including the sample mean difference, the maximum likelihood(More)