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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
The parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a worldwide cause of diarrhea, but the mechanism of disease remains elusive. The parasite colonizes the small intestinal epithelium, known to be a sensor for the presence of enteric pathogens, without invading or causing severe inflammation. In this study we investigated the epithelial cell response to G. lamblia.(More)
Glycogen phosphorylase (E.C.2.4.1.1) was the first enzyme shown to be regulated by allosteric effectors and by protein phosphorylation. Transcriptional control of bacterial phosphorylases further extends the range of regulatory mechanisms by which phosphorylases contribute to the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Despite their regulatory differences, all(More)
Synthetic peptides, corresponding to the amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal parts of the 3rd intracellular loop of the dopamine D2 receptor, attenuate dopaminergic adenylate cyclase inhibition in membranes. Both peptides also activate directly GTPase activity in membranes. We suggest a functional model for G(i)-coupled receptors where two sites(More)
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