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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies(More)
The parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a worldwide cause of diarrhea, but the mechanism of disease remains elusive. The parasite colonizes the small intestinal epithelium, known to be a sensor for the presence of enteric pathogens, without invading or causing severe inflammation. In this study we investigated the epithelial cell response to G. lamblia.(More)
Main developments in this update • As of 24 September 2013, 133 confirmed cases of MERS-CoV have been reported worldwide, 60 of which have been fatal. The age range is from 2 to 94 years, with a median age of 50 years. Sixty-two per cent of cases with gender information are male. To date, all cases have either occurred in the Middle East or have had direct(More)
Molecular data are now widely used in epidemiological studies to investigate the transmission, distribution, biology, and diversity of pathogens. Our objective was to establish recommendations to support good scientific reporting of molecular epidemiological studies to encourage authors to consider specific threats to valid inference. The statement(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence of risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) associated with medical procedures, including surgery and blood transfusion, is limited by susceptibility to bias in epidemiological studies. METHODS Sensitivity to bias was explored using a central-birth-cohort model using data from 18 case-control studies obtained after a review of 494(More)
Editorials Enteroaggregative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak: new microbiological findings boost coordinated investigations by European public health laboratories Citation style for this article: Struelens MJ, Palm D, Takkinen J. Enteroaggregative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak: new microbiological findings(More)
Following human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net) rapidly posted relevant information, including real-time RT-PCR protocols. An(More)