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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7(More)
Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite infecting the upper mammalian small intestine. Infection relies upon the ability of the parasite to attach to the intestine via a unique cytoskeletal organelle, the ventral disk. We determined the composition and structure of the disk throughout the life cycle of the parasite and identified a new disk protein, SALP-1.(More)
Giardia lamblia is an important human intestinal parasite that survives outside of the host by differentiation of trophozoites into infectious cysts. Transcriptional regulation is key for encystation gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Giardia genome database searches identified a myb-like gene (gmyb2) whose expression increased during(More)
The intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia undergoes cell differentiations that entail entry into and departure from the replicative cell cycle. The pathophysiology of giardiasis depends directly upon the ability of the trophozoite form to replicate in the host upper small intestine. Thus, cell proliferation is tightly linked to disease. However, studies of(More)
Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that causes watery diarrhea worldwide but the mechanisms of pathogenicity and the major host defenses against Giardia infection are not well characterized. The recent sequencing of the G. lamblia genome and the development of methods for genome-wide analyses of gene expression have made it possible to characterize(More)
Molecular data are now widely used in epidemiological studies to investigate the transmission, distribution, biology, and diversity of pathogens. Our objective was to establish recommendations to support good scientific reporting of molecular epidemiological studies to encourage authors to consider specific threats to valid inference. The statement(More)
Previous studies have reported the increased sensitivity of PCR targeting AF146527 over that of PCR targeting the B1 gene for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The present study suggests that the AF146527 element was absent in 4.8% of human Toxoplasma gondii-positive samples tested. The data argue that the B1 gene may be the preferred diagnostic target.
The parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a worldwide cause of diarrhea, but the mechanism of disease remains elusive. The parasite colonizes the small intestinal epithelium, known to be a sensor for the presence of enteric pathogens, without invading or causing severe inflammation. In this study we investigated the epithelial cell response to G. lamblia.(More)