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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7(More)
Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite infecting the upper mammalian small intestine. Infection relies upon the ability of the parasite to attach to the intestine via a unique cytoskeletal organelle, the ventral disk. We determined the composition and structure of the disk throughout the life cycle of the parasite and identified a new disk protein, SALP-1.(More)
Previous studies have reported the increased sensitivity of PCR targeting AF146527 over that of PCR targeting the B1 gene for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The present study suggests that the AF146527 element was absent in 4.8% of human Toxoplasma gondii-positive samples tested. The data argue that the B1 gene may be the preferred diagnostic target.
Giardia lamblia is an important human intestinal parasite that survives outside of the host by differentiation of trophozoites into infectious cysts. Transcriptional regulation is key for encystation gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Giardia genome database searches identified a myb-like gene (gmyb2) whose expression increased during(More)
Editorials Enteroaggregative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak: new microbiological findings boost coordinated investigations by European public health laboratories Citation style for this article: Struelens MJ, Palm D, Takkinen J. Enteroaggregative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak: new microbiological findings(More)
BACKGROUND Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) denotes a group of inherited neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity as their clinical hallmark; a large proportion of autosomal dominant HSP belongs to HSP type 4, which has been linked to the SPG4 locus on chromosome 2. A variety of mutations have been identified within the SPG4 gene(More)
The intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia undergoes cell differentiations that entail entry into and departure from the replicative cell cycle. The pathophysiology of giardiasis depends directly upon the ability of the trophozoite form to replicate in the host upper small intestine. Thus, cell proliferation is tightly linked to disease. However, studies of(More)
Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that causes watery diarrhea worldwide but the mechanisms of pathogenicity and the major host defenses against Giardia infection are not well characterized. The recent sequencing of the G. lamblia genome and the development of methods for genome-wide analyses of gene expression have made it possible to characterize(More)